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The size of the dose will depend upon whether the subject has been using narcotics
regularly. If not, two grains will suffice. If the subject drinks heavily, morphine or a
similar narcotic can be injected at the passing out stage, and the cause of death will often
be held to be acute alcoholism."

"Edge weapons: Any legally obtained edge device may be success-fully employed. A
certain minimum of anatomical knowledge is needed for reliability. Puncture wounds of
the body cavity may not be reliable unless the heart is reached. The heart is protected by
the rib cage and is not always easy to locate...Absolute reliability is obtained by severing
the spinal cord in the cervical region. This can be done with the point of a knife or a light
blow of an axe or hatchet. Another reliable method is the severing of both jugular and
carotid vessels on both sides of the windpipe."

"Conference room technique: [Assassin] #1 Enters room quickly but quietly. #2 Stands in
doorway. #2 Opens fire on first subject to react. Swings across group toward center of
mass. Times burst to empty magazine at end of swing. #1 Covers group to prevent
individual dangerous reactions; if necessary, fires individual bursts of 3 rounds. #1
Finishes burst. Commands 'Shift'. Drops back through door. Replaces empty magazine.
Covers corridor. #1 On command 'Shift', opens fire on opposite side of target. Swings one
burst across group. Leaves propaganda [to implicate the opposition]."

US Army, "Terrorism and the Urban Guerilla", 1960s 2

"Measures of Controlling the Population and Resources:

1. ID Cards. An effective system of identification is fundamental to the program...
2. Registration. A program of registering families is used to supplement the system of ID
cards. This is the system of inventorying all families by house, making a list of all
members of the family who live in the house along with the family's resources. One can
also note the presence of insurgent tendencies and affiliations among the population.

3. Control by block. The purpose of block'by'block control is to detect the individuals
who are supporting or sympathizing with the insurgents and the type of support they are

4. Police patrols. Their purpose is to detect sources of insurgent support, sympathizers,
and routes used by the insurgent forces for intelligence, logistics, and routine activities...

Curfew. The purpose is to permit the authorities to identify violators and take actions
based on the premise that anyone who violates the curfew is an insurgent or sympathizes
with the insurgents until he can prove the contrary.

Checkpoints. It is of little use to establish a program of passes and ID cards unless there
is a system of verifying these official papers. Therefore, establishing checkpoints in all
travel routes is necessary once the use of passes has started."

US Army, "Handling of Sources", 1960s 3

"The CI [counterintelligence] agent should cause the arrest of the employee's [paid
government informant's] parents, imprison the employee or give him a beating as part of
the placement plan of said employee in the guerrilla organization." [It's not clear whether
these things were to be done to force the person to be an informer or to give him
credibility as such.]

"The employee's value could be increased by means of arrests, executions or pacification,
taking care not to expose the employee as the information source."

"To assure the promotion of an employee...eliminate a potential rival among the

"[Employees are required because] the government is not able to depend only on the
information provided voluntarily by faithful citizens or information obtained
involuntarily from insurgents who have been captured."

The official Defense Department view of these manuals was that the objectionable
material in them had simply fallen through the cracks. The DOD stated: "There was no
evidence that there was a deliberate attempt to violate Army or Defense Department
policies in the preparation or use of these manuals." However, the office of Rep. Joseph
Kennedy (D.-MA), which had followed the issue closely, said that at the School of the
Americas, where the manuals had been used, at least two officers had raised questions
about the objectionable material with their superiors in the early 1980s, but had been
CIA, "KUBARK Counterintelligence Interrogation-July 1963"5

"The effectiveness of most of the non-coercive techniques depends on their unsettling
effect. The interrogation situation is in itself disturbing to most people encountering it for
the first time. The aim is to enhance this effect...[and to create] a traumatic or sub-
traumatic experience which explodes, as it were, the world that is familiar to the subject
as well as his image of himself in that world."

"Usually his own clothes are taken away because familiar clothing reinforces identity and
thus the capacity for resistance."

"The following are the principal coercive techniques of inter-rogation: arrest, detention,
deprivation of sensory stimuli through solitary confinement or similar methods, threats
and fear, debility, pain, heightened suggestibility and hypnosis, narcosis, and induced

CIA, "Human Resource Exploitation Training Manual-1983"6

"Control”The capacity to cause or change certain types of human behavior by implying
or using physical or psychological means to induce compliance. Compliance may be
voluntary or involuntary."

"Subject is brought into the facility blindfolded and handcuffed and should remain so
during the entire processing...Subject is completely stripped and told to take a shower.
Blindfold remains in place while showering and guard watches throughout. Subject is
given a thorough medical examination, including all body cavities."

"Allowing a subject to receive carefully selected letters from home can help create an
effect desired by the 'questioner'; for example, the subject may get the idea that his
relatives are under duress or suffering. A suggestion at the proper time that his
cooperation or confession can help protect the innocent may be effective."

"Bedding should be minimal”cot and blanket”no mattress. (The idea is to prevent the
subject from relaxing and recovering from shock.) There should be no built-in toilet
facilities. The subject should have to ask to relieve himself. Then he should either be
given a bucket or escorted by a guard to the latrine. The guard stays at his side the entire
time he is in the latrine."

"Deprivation of sensory stimuli induces stress and anxiety. The more complete the
deprivation, the more rapidly and deeply the subject is affected."

CIA, "Freedom Fighters' Manual", 1984 7
A 16-page "comic book" for Nicaraguans; its more than 40 illustra-tions showed the
reader how s/he could "liberate Nicaragua from oppression and misery" of "the Marxist
tyranny" by "a series of useful sabotage techniques". Amongst these were:

Stop up toilets with sponges...pull down power cables...put dirt into gas tanks...put nails
on roads and highways...cut and perforate the upholstery of vehicles.. .cut down trees
over highways...telephone to make false hotel reservations and false alarms of fires and
crimes...hoard and steal food from the government...leave lights and water taps on...steal
mail from mailboxes...go to work late...call in sick...short-circuit electricity...break light
bulbs...rip up books... spread rumors...threaten supervisors and officials over the phone...

CIA, "Psychological Operations in Guerrilla Warfare", 1984 8

A manual designed for the US-backed Contra forces (the guerrillas) fighting in Nicaragua
against the leftist Sandinista government. It advised:

"Kidnap all officials or agents of the Sandinista government and place them in 'public

"Shame, ridicule and humiliate the 'personal symbols' of the government of repression in
the presence of the people and foster popular participation through guerrillas within the
multitude, shout-ing slogans and jeers."

"If a guerrilla fires at an individual, make the town see that he was an enemy of the
people" and "that if that citizen had managed to escape, he would have alerted the enemy
that is near the town or city, and they could carry out acts of reprisal such as rapes,
pillage, destruction, captures, etc...Make the population see that it was the repressive
system of the regime that...really killed the informer, and that the weapon fired was one
recovered in combat against the Sandinista regime."

"It is possible to neutralize carefully selected and planned targets, such as court judges,
mesta judges [justices of the peace], police and State Security officials, CDS [Sandinista
Defense Committees] chiefs, etc." (As writer Holly Sklar has noted: "A hit list that starts
with court judges and ends with etcetera is a mighty broad license for murder.")

"The notification of the police, denouncing a target who does not want to join the
guerrillas, can be carried out easily...through a letter with false statements of citizens who
are not implicated in the movement."

"If possible, professional criminals will be hired to carry out specific selected 'jobs'."

"Specific tasks will be assigned to others, in order to create a 'martyr' for the cause, taking
the demonstrators to a confrontation with the authorities, in order to bring about uprisings
or shootings, which will cause the death of one or more persons, who would become the
martyrs, a situation that should be made use of immediately against the regime, in order
to create greater conflicts."

"Shock Troops. These men should be equipped with weapons (knives, razors, chains,
clubs, bludgeons) and should march slightly behind the innocent and gullible

Throughout, the manual reads like what the Western world was always taught was the
way communists scheme and indoctrinate.

The World Court found that in producing and disseminating this manual, the United
States "encouraged the commission...of acts contrary to general principles of
humanitarian law," including the Geneva Conventions of 1949. 9

CHAPTER 5 : Torture

"The first jolt was so bad 1 just wanted to die."

Gloria Esperanza Reyes, speaking of her torture in Honduras, where electric wires were
attached to her breasts and vagina

"They always asked to be killed. Torture is worse than death."

Jose Barrera, Honduran torturer 1

Turkey, July 14, 1999, the police break into the home of a Kurdish family and announce
they want to take the two daughters”Medine, 14, and her younger sister Devran”in for
questioning. "I headed for the bedroom to get dressed," said Devran later, "but
Medine...went straight to the window and jumped."

Medine's mother explained: "My daughter, you see, preferred death to being tortured
once again."2

"Torture might last a short time, but the person will never be the same."

Amnesty International report3

"No exceptional circumstances whatsoever, whether a state of war or a threat of war,
internal political instability or any other public emergency, may be invoked as a
justification for torture."

The Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or
Punishment, Article 2, S24
"Physical abuse or other degrading treatment was rejected, not only because it is wrong,
but because it has historically proven to be ineffective," said Richard Stolz, Deputy
Director of Operations of the Central Intelligence Agency in 1988.5

The CIA likes to say things like this because they think it sounds like good plausible
denial But who can believe that torture does not loosen up tongues, that for such purpose
it is not exceedingly effective? Richard Stolz and the CIA would have us believe that
Medine, in the above example, if denied the opportunity to kill herself, would not talk
under torture. Torture's effectiveness extends yet further, for its purpose is frequently not
so much to elicit information as it is to punish, to coerce the victims from any further
dissident activity by gouging out the idealism from their very being, and as a warning to
their comrades.

For these ends, the CIA has co-existed with torture for decades. (Turkey, it must be
remembered, is one of Washington's very closest strategic allies; for Honduras, see
below.) Sleeping with friendly torturers has been a closely guarded secret at the Agency,
and for that reason the actual painful details have been difficult to come by over the
years. But here is some of the record that has made its way to the light of day.


During the late 1940s, the CIA was instrumental in the creation of a new internal security
agency, KYR Before long, KYP was carrying out all the endearing practices of secret
police everywhere, including systematic torture. It was most active during the regime of
the military junta, 1967-74, a period of routine horrific torture. Amnesty International
later reported that "American policy on the torture question as expressed in official
statements and official testimony has been to deny it where possible and minimize it
where denial was not possible. This policy flowed naturally from general support for the
military regime."6

James Becket, an American attorney sent to Greece by Amnesty, wrote in 1969 that some
torturers told prisoners that some of their equipment had come as US military aid. One
item was a special "thick white double cable" whip that was "scientific, making their
work easier"; another was the head screw, known as an "iron wreath", which was
progressively tightened around the head or ears.7 American support, reported Becket,
was vital to the torturers:

Hundreds of prisoners have listened to the little speech given by Inspector Basil
Lambrou, who sits behind his desk which displays the red, white, and blue clasped-hand
symbol of American aid. He tries to show the prisoner the absolute futility of resistance:
"You make yourself ridiculous by thinking you can do anything. The world is divided in
two. There are the communists on that side and on this side the free world. The Russians
and the Americans, no one else. What are we? Americans. Behind me there is the
government, behind the government is NATO, behind NATO is the U.S. You can't fight
us, we are Americans."8

The notorious Iranian security service, SAVAK, which employed torture routinely, was
created under the guidance of the CIA and Israel in the 1950s.9 According to a former
CIA analyst on Iran, Jesse J. Leaf, SAVAK was instructed in torture techniques by the
Agency.10 After the 1979 revolution, the Iranians found CIA film made for SAVAK on
how to torture women.11


In the 1950s, in Munich, the CIA tortured suspected infiltrators of Soviet emigre
organizations in Western Europe, which the Agency was using in anti-Soviet operations.
Amongst the techniques employed by the CIA were such esoteric torture methods as
applying turpentine to a man's testicles or sealing someone in a room and playing
Indonesian music at deafening levels until he cracked.12 This information probably
surfaced because it's weird-sounding to the point of being amusing; there was likely more
of regular torture methods not fit for conversation.



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