<< ŌūŚšŻšůýŗˇ

ŮÚū. 30
(ŤÁ 44 ŮÚū.)

ő√ňņ¬ňŇÕ»Ň

—ŽŚšůĢýŗˇ >>

means ‚Ęshould/might‚Ä™ when used in combination with -v- which
expresses the perfect.
It is unfortunate that not all Latin verbs are inÔ¬‚ected or, as gram-
marians say, conjugated in quite the same way. Most of them belong
to one of four (or Ô¬Āve) main types, which are called conjugations.
Table 12 shows the patterns for each conjugation.With the aid of this
table you can identify almost all forms of almost all verbs, but you do
need to know how to go from the word list to the table. In the word
list there are mostly four forms for each verb, for example: monstro,
monstr√°vi, monstr√°tus, monstr√°re. The Ô¬Ārst form is the Ô¬Ārst person
singular present indicative ‚ĘI show‚Ä™; the second is the Ô¬Ārst person
singular perfect indicative ‚ĘI have shown/I showed‚Ä™; the third is
the perfect participle in the nominative singular masculine ‚Ęshown‚Ä™
(if there is no masculine form the neuter is given); and the fourth is
the present inÔ¬Ānitive ‚Ęto show‚Ä™.
These four forms have been chosen because together they show you
how the stem of the verb‚Ä”to which the endings are attached‚Ä”appears

200
About the Grammar

in the different sets of forms. The second form shows what the stem
looks like for all the members of the perfect, the pluperfect, and the
future perfect series and some other forms given in Table 13. You just
remove the ending -i and you have what is called the perfect stem,
which in this case is monstrav-. To that you add the endings according
to the table, so, for example, you can arrive at forms like monstr√°verat
‚Ęhe had shown‚Ä™. Other verbs can have perfect stems which look com-
pletely different. For instance, the second form of the verb video is vidi,
as you can discover from the word list, and its perfect stem is vid-. The
second form of the verb sum ‚Ębe‚Ä™ is fui and hence has a perfect stem
fu-. On these stems you can build forms like viderat ‚Ęhe had seen‚Ä™ and
fuerat ‚Ęhe had been‚Ä™.
The third form of a verb in the word list is the perfect participle,
which has the ending -us.The material before the ending constitutes
the participle stem, to which you add the endings for the adjectives
as in Table 3 (above). For the verb monstro we have, for example,
monstratus ‚Ęshown (masculine singular nominative)‚Ä™, monstrati
‚Ęshown (masculine plural nominative)‚Ä™, etc. and for the verb video
‚Ęsee‚Ä™ we have visus ‚Ęseen (masculine singular nominative)‚Ä™, visi ‚Ęseen
(masculine plural nominative)‚Ä™, etc. The perfect participle has many
uses in Latin, one being to help make the passive forms for the per-
fect, pluperfect, and future perfect. If for instance you want to say ‚Ęhe
had been shown‚Ä™, there is actually no simple verb for that in Latin,
and you would have to use instead the expression monstratus erat,
which may of course also mean ‚Ęhe was shown‚Ä™.
The forms that we have mentioned so far have exactly the same
endings for all verbs, so that, as long as you know the stem, you will
know what all the forms will look like. The remaining forms are
the present, the imperfect, and the future, both active and passive.The
forms are shown in Tables 12a, and 12b, which each have Ô¬Āve columns,
one for each of the Ô¬Āve conjugations. To know which conjugation a
verb belongs to, you have to look at the inÔ¬Ānitive, which is the last
form given in the word list, and compare it with the forms in the row
‚ĘInÔ¬Ānitive‚Ä™ at the beginning of Table 12a or 12b. The Ô¬Ārst conjugation
has an inÔ¬Ānitive in -√°re, the second in -√©re, the third in unstressed -ere,

201
Table 12a. Verb formation, present stem forms: active

Tense, mood Form meaning Conjugations

1 2 3a 3b 4
‚Ęshow‚Ä™ ‚Ęsee‚Ä™ ‚Ęrule‚Ä™ ‚Ętake‚Ä™ ‚Ęhear‚Ä™

InÔ¬Ānitive ‚Ęto show‚Ä™ etc. monstr√°re vid√©re r√©gere c√°pere aud√≠re
Present ‚Ęshowing‚Ä™ etc. m√≥nstrans, v√≠dens, r√©gens, c√°piens, a√ļdiens,
participle gen. gen. gen. gen. gen.
(see Table 5) monstrántis vidéntis regéntis capiéntis audiéntis
Imperative ‚Ęshow!‚Ä™ etc. m√≥nstra v√≠de r√©ge c√°pe a√ļdi
singular
Imperative ‚Ęshow!‚Ä™ etc. monstr√°te vid√©te r√©gite c√°pite aud√≠te
plural
Present ‚ĘI show‚Ä™ etc. m√≥nstro v√≠deo r√©go c√°pio a√ļdio
indicative ‚Ęyou show‚Ä™ etc. m√≥nstras v√≠des r√©gis c√°pis a√ļdis
‚Ęhe/she/it m√≥nstrat v√≠det r√©git c√°pit a√ļdit
shows‚Ä™ etc.
‚Ęwe show‚Ä™ etc. monstr√°mus vid√©mus r√©gimus c√°pimus aud√≠mus
‚Ęyou show‚Ä™ etc. monstr√°tis vid√©tis r√©gitis c√°pitis aud√≠tis
‚Ęthey show‚Ä™ etc. m√≥nstrant v√≠dent r√©gunt c√°piunt a√ļdiunt
Imperfect ‚ĘI showed‚Ä™ etc. monstr√°bam vid√©bam reg√©bam capi√©bam audi√©bam
indicative ‚Ęyou‚Ä™ monstr√°bas vid√©bas reg√©bas capi√©bas audi√©bas
‚Ęhe/she/it‚Ä™ monstr√°bat vid√©bat reg√©bat capi√©bat audi√©bat
‚Ęwe‚Ä™ monstrab√°mus videb√°mus regeb√°mus capieb√°mus audieb√°mus
‚Ęyou‚Ä™ monstrab√°tis videb√°tis regeb√°tis capieb√°tis audieb√°tis
‚Ęthey‚Ä™ monstr√°bant vid√©bant reg√©bant capi√©bant audi√©bant
Future ‚ĘI will show‚Ä™ etc. monstr√°bo vid√©bo r√©gam c√°piam a√ļdiam
‚Ęyou‚Ä™ monstr√°bis vid√©bis r√©ges c√°pies a√ļdies
‚Ęhe/she/it‚Ä™ monstr√°bit vid√©bit r√©get c√°piet a√ļdiet
‚Ęwe‚Ä™ monstr√°bimus vid√©bimus reg√©mus capi√©mus audi√©mus
‚Ęyou‚Ä™ monstr√°bitis vid√©bitis reg√©tis capi√©tis audi√©tis
‚Ęthey‚Ä™ monstr√°bunt vid√©bunt r√©gent c√°pient a√ļdient
Present ‚ĘI show/may m√≥nstrem v√≠deam r√©gam c√°piam a√ļdiam
subjunctive show‚Ä™ etc.
‚Ęyou‚Ä™ m√≥nstres v√≠deas r√©gas c√°pias a√ļdias
‚Ęhe/she/it‚Ä™ m√≥nstret v√≠deat r√©gat c√°piat a√ļdiat
‚Ęwe‚Ä™ monstr√©mus vide√°mus reg√°mus capi√°mus audi√°mus
‚Ęyou‚Ä™ monstr√©tis vide√°tis reg√°tis capi√°tis audi√°tis
‚Ęthey‚Ä™ m√≥nstrent v√≠deant r√©gant c√°piant a√ļdiant
Imperfect ‚ĘI showed/ monstr√°rem vid√©rem r√©gerem c√°perem aud√≠rem
subjunctive might show‚Ä™ etc.
‚Ęyou‚Ä™ monstr√°res vid√©res r√©geres c√°peres aud√≠res
‚Ęhe/she/it‚Ä™ monstr√°ret vid√©ret r√©geret c√°peret aud√≠ret
‚Ęwe‚Ä™ monstrar√©mus vider√©mus reger√©mus caper√©mus audir√©mus
‚Ęyou‚Ä™ monstrar√©tis vider√©tis reger√©tis caper√©tis audir√©tis
‚Ęthey‚Ä™ monstr√°rent vid√©rent r√©gerent c√°perent aud√≠rent
Table 12b. Verb formation, present stem forms: passive

Tense , mood Meaning Conjugations

1 2 3a 3b 4
‚Ębe shown‚Ä™ ‚Ębe seen, ‚Ębe ruled‚Ä™ ‚Ębe taken‚Ä™ ‚Ębe heard‚Ä™
seem‚Ä™

InÔ¬Ānitive ‚Ęto be shown‚Ä™ etc. monstr√°ri vid√©ri r√©gi c√°pi aud√≠ri
Gerundive ‚Ęwhich should monstr√°ndus vid√©ndus reg√©ndus capi√©ndus audi√©ndus
(forms as in be shown/to
Table 3) show‚Ä™ etc.
Present ‚ĘI am shown‚Ä™ etc. m√≥nstror v√≠deor r√©gor c√°pior a√ļdior
indicative ‚Ęyou‚Ä™ monstr√°ris vid√©ris r√©geris c√°peris aud√≠ris
‚Ęhe/she/it‚Ä™ monstr√°tur vid√©tur r√©gitur c√°pitur aud√≠tur
‚Ęwe‚Ä™ monstr√°mur vid√©mur r√©gimur c√°pimur aud√≠mur
‚Ęyou‚Ä™ monstr√°mini vid√©mini reg√≠mini cap√≠mini aud√≠mini
‚Ęthey‚Ä™ monstr√°ntur vid√©ntur reg√ļntur capi√ļntur audi√ļntur
Imperfect ‚ĘI was shown‚Ä™ etc. monstr√°bar vid√©bar reg√©bar capi√©bar audi√©bar
indicative ‚Ęyou‚Ä™ monstrab√°ris videb√°ris regeb√°ris capieb√°ris audieb√°ris
‚Ęhe/she/it‚Ä™ monstrab√°tur videb√°tur regeb√°tur capieb√°tur audieb√°tur
‚Ęwe‚Ä™ monstrab√°mur videb√°mur regeb√°mur capieb√°mur audieb√°mur
‚Ęyou‚Ä™ monstrab√°mini videb√°mini regeb√°mini capieb√°mini audieb√°mini
‚Ęthey‚Ä™ monstrab√°ntur videb√°ntur regeb√°ntur capieb√°ntur audieb√°ntur
Future ‚ĘI will be monstr√°bor vid√©bor r√©gar c√°piar a√ļdiar
shown‚Ä™ etc.
‚Ęyou‚Ä™ monstr√°beris vid√©beris reg√©ris capi√©ris audi√©ris
‚Ęhe/she/it‚Ä™ monstr√°bitur vid√©bitur reg√©tur capi√©tur audi√©tur
‚Ęwe‚Ä™ monstr√°bimur vid√©bimur reg√©mur capi√©mur audi√©mur
‚Ęyou‚Ä™ monstrab√≠mini videb√≠mini reg√©mini capi√©mini audi√©mini
‚Ęthey‚Ä™ monstrab√ļntur videb√ļntur reg√©ntur capi√©ntur audi√©ntur
Present ‚ĘI am shown/ m√≥nstrer v√≠dear r√©gar c√°piar a√ļdiar
subjunctive may be
shown‚Ä™ etc.
‚Ęyou‚Ä™ monstr√©ris vide√°ris reg√°ris capi√°ris audi√°ris
‚Ęhe/she/it‚Ä™ monstr√©tur vide√°tur reg√°tur capi√°tur audi√°tur
‚Ęwe‚Ä™ monstr√©mur vide√°mur reg√°mur capi√°mur audi√°mur
‚Ęyou‚Ä™ monstr√©mini vide√°mini reg√°mini capi√°mini audi√°mini
‚Ęthey‚Ä™ monstr√©ntur vide√°ntur reg√°ntur capi√°ntur audi√°ntur
Imperfect ‚ĘI was shown/ monstr√°rer vid√©rer r√©gerer c√°perer aud√≠rer
subjunctive might be
shown‚Ä™ etc.
‚Ęyou‚Ä™ monstrar√©ris vider√©ris reger√©ris caper√©ris audir√©ris
‚Ęhe/she/it‚Ä™ monstrar√©tur vider√©tur reger√©tur caper√©tur audir√©tur
‚Ęwe‚Ä™ monstrar√©mur vider√©mur reger√©mur caper√©mur audir√©mur
‚Ęyou‚Ä™ monstrar√©mini vider√©mini reger√©mini caper√©mini audir√©mini
‚Ęthey‚Ä™ monstrar√©ntur vider√©ntur reger√©ntur caper√©ntur audir√©ntur
A natural history of Latin

Table 13. Verb formation, perfect stem forms

Tense and mood Meaning Form

InÔ¬Ānitive to have shown monstrav√≠sse
Perfect indicative ‚ĘI have shown/showed‚Ä™ monstr√°vi
‚Ęyou have shown/showed‚Ä™ monstrav√≠sti
‚Ęhe/she has shown/showed‚Ä™ monstr√°vit
‚Ęwe have shown/showed‚Ä™ monstr√°vimus
‚Ęyou have shown/showed‚Ä™ monstrav√≠stis
‚Ęthey have shown/showed‚Ä™ monstrav√©runt
Pluperfect ‚ĘI had shown‚Ä™ monstr√°veram
indicative ‚Ęyou had shown‚Ä™ monstr√°veras
‚Ęhe/she had shown‚Ä™ monstr√°verat
‚Ęwe had shown‚Ä™ monstraver√°mus
‚Ęyou had shown‚Ä™ monstraver√°tis
‚Ęthey had shown‚Ä™ monstr√°verant
Future perfect ‚ĘI will have shown‚Ä™ monstr√°vero
‚Ęyou will have shown‚Ä™ monstr√°veris
‚Ęhe/she will have shown‚Ä™ monstr√°verit
‚Ęwe will have shown‚Ä™ monstrav√©rimus
‚Ęyou will have shown‚Ä™ monstrav√©ritis
‚Ęthey will have shown‚Ä™ monstr√°verint
Perfect subjunctive ‚ĘI have shown/show‚Ä™ monstraverim
‚Ęyou have shown/show‚Ä™ monstr√°veris
‚Ęhe/she has shown/shows‚Ä™ monstr√°verit
‚Ęwe have shown/show‚Ä™ monstrav√©rimus
‚Ęyou have shown/show‚Ä™ monstrav√©ritis
‚Ęthey have shown/show‚Ä™ monstr√°verint
Pluperfect ‚ĘI might have shown‚Ä™ monstrav√≠ssem
subjunctive ‚Ęyou might have shown‚Ä™ monstrav√≠sses
‚Ęhe/she might have shown‚Ä™ monstrav√≠sset
‚Ęwe might have shown‚Ä™ monstraviss√©mus
‚Ęyou might have shown‚Ä™ monstraviss√©tis
‚Ęthey might have shown‚Ä™ monstrav√≠ssent




206
About the Grammar

and the fourth in ‚Ä“√≠re. In the third conjugation there are two
sub-groups, 3a and 3b.To decide which group a verb belongs to, look at
the Ô¬Ārst form given in the word list. If that ends in -io, like facio ‚Ędo‚Ä™,
the verb belongs in 3b; if it ends in -o, like mitto ‚Ęsend‚Ä™, it belongs in 3a.
When you have established which conjugation a verb belongs to,
you know which column in Table 12a or 12b you need to look in to
Ô¬Ānd the forms of the verb. Each form consists of a stem plus a sufÔ¬Āx
which indicates tense and mood (for example the imperfect subjunc-
tive) plus a person ending. In monstra-bi-t ‚Ęhe/she will show‚Ä™, -t
indicates third person singular, -bi- the future indicative active, and
monstra- is the stem meaning to show. The stem is in principle what
comes before -re in the inÔ¬Ānitive, but there are quite a number of
complications, especially in the third conjugation. To be certain
about a given form you have to either look it up in the table or learn
the table by heart.
The present participle,for example m√≥nstrans‚Ęshowing‚Ä™,contains the
present stem, and the inÔ¬‚ection for this class is given in Table 5 (above)
in the section on adjectives (since the participle is a verbal adjective).
The genitive of this word is monstr√°ntis, and from that it is clear that
the stem to which the adjectival endings are attached is monstrant-.
That stem in turn consists of the present stem plus -nt-, although
there are some discrepancies in some of the conjugations.
The stem ends in a long -a- in the Ô¬Ārst conjugation, a long -e- in
the second, and a long -i- in the fourth. The third conjugation con-
tains both words with a stem ending in a short -i- and words with a
stem ending in a consonant, and the forms of the sub-types have
inÔ¬‚uenced each other in various ways that need not concern us here.
Finally, there are also verb forms called gerundives. These have a
stem which is similar to that of the present participle, but with the
addition of -nd- instead of -nt-. To the -nd- stem are attached the
adjectival endings from Table 3 (above), for instance monstr√°ndus.
This form means, among other things, ‚Ęwhich should be shown‚Ä™. We
discuss it in more detail in the following section.
A few Latin verbs have irregular forms, the most important being
the verb esse ‚Ębe‚Ä™, which is conjugated in the present as shown

207
A natural history of Latin

Table 14. The verb sum in the present stem forms

Tense and mood Meaning Form

InÔ¬Ānitive ‚Ęto be‚Ä™ esse
Present indicative ‚ĘI am‚Ä™ sum
‚Ęyou are‚Ä™ es
‚Ęhe/she/it is‚Ä™ est
‚Ęwe are‚Ä™ s√ļmus
‚Ęyou are‚Ä™ √©stis
‚Ęthey are‚Ä™ sunt
Imperfect indicative ‚ĘI was‚Ä™ √©ram
‚Ęyou were‚Ä™ √©ras
‚Ęhe/she/it was‚Ä™ √©rat
‚Ęwe were‚Ä™ er√°mus
‚Ęyou were‚Ä™ er√°tis
‚Ęthey were‚Ä™ √©rant
Future ‚ĘI will be‚Ä™ √©ro
‚Ęyou will be‚Ä™ √©ris
‚Ęhe/she/it will be‚Ä™ √©rit
‚Ęwe will be‚Ä™ √©rimus
‚Ęyou will be‚Ä™ √©ritis
‚Ęthey will be‚Ä™ √©runt
Present subjunctive ‚ĘI am/may be‚Ä™ sim
‚Ęyou are/may be‚Ä™ sis
‚Ęhe/she/it is/may be‚Ä™ sit
‚Ęwe are/may be‚Ä™ s√≠mus
‚Ęyou are/may be‚Ä™ s√≠tis
‚Ęthey are/may be‚Ä™ sint
Imperfect ‚ĘI were/might be‚Ä™ √©ssem
subjunctive ‚Ęyou were/might be‚Ä™ √©sses
‚Ęhe/she/it were/might be‚Ä™ √©sset
‚Ęwe were/might be‚Ä™ ess√©mus
‚Ęyou were/might be‚Ä™ ess√©tis

<< ŌūŚšŻšůýŗˇ

ŮÚū. 30
(ŤÁ 44 ŮÚū.)

ő√ňņ¬ňŇÕ»Ň

—ŽŚšůĢýŗˇ >>