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Stabat mater dolorósa iuxta crucem lacrimósa, dum pend©bat
fílius The mother stood grieving and weeping beside the cross
where her son was hanging (beginning of the hymn Stabat mater)
status quo (ante) the state in which things were (before)

Common phrases and expressions

Stúdium disc©ndi voluntáte, quae cogi non potest, constat
Enthusiasm for learning depends on the will, which cannot be forced
sub iudice under investigation (lit. ˜under the judge™)
sub rosa in secret (because a rose was hung over the council table as a
sign of secrecy)
sub specie aeternitátis from the viewpoint of eternity (Spinoza)
sui g©neris of its own kind, a ˜one-off™
summa summárum the sum of sums (Plautus)
summum bonum the highest good
Summum ius, summa iniúria The highest justice is the greatest
injustice (Cicero)
Sunt áliquid manes, letum non ómnia ¬nit The shades do exist,
death is not the end of everything (Propertius)
suo iure in one™s own right
suum cuique to each his own (Cicero)

tábula rasa empty slate
ta©dium vitae weariness of life, especially as leading to suicide
Tamquam scópulum sic fúgias inaudítum atque ínsolens verbum
You should avoid new and unusual words as you would the cliff™s edge
Tantae molis erat Románam cóndere gentem So much effort did it
cost to found the Roman nation (Virgil)
Tanta©ne ánimis cael©stibus irae? Why such wrath in the minds of
the gods? (Virgil)
Tantum relígio pótuit suad©re malórum Religion has caused so
many evils (Lucretius) 58
Te deum laudámus, te deum con¬t©mur We praise you, God, we
acknowledge you (Nicetas: the beginning of a hymn)
T©mpora mutántur, nos et mutámur in illis Times change and we
change with them (John Owen)
t©rminus a quo the starting-point of an argument, policy, etc.
t©rminus ad quem the ¬nishing-point of an argument,
policy, etc.
t©rminus ante quem the time before which, i.e. the latest possible
date of an event (used by historians in establishing the date of one
event relative to another)

Common phrases and expressions

t©rminus post quem the time after which, i.e. the earliest possible
date of an event
T©rtium non datur A third (alternative) is not given
Tímeo Dánaos et dona fer©ntes I fear the Greeks even when they
bear gifts (Virgil)
terra ¬rma solid earth
terra incógnita unknown territory
Tolle lege, tolle lege! Take and read, take and read! (Augustine)
tot discrímina rerum so many setbacks (Virgil)
totis víribus with all one™s strength
Tu r©gere imp©rio pópulos, Románe, mem©nto You, Roman,
remember to rule the peoples with your power (Virgil)

Ubi bene, ibi pátria The real fatherland is where you can live well
Ubi solitúdinem fáciunt, pacem app©llant They make a desert and
call it peace (Tacitus)
Última Thule The furthest Thule (Virgil, a name for the extreme
north of Europe)
Unum bonum est quod beátae vitae causa et ¬rmam©ntum est,
sibi fídere There is one good thing which is the cause and
foundation of a happy life, to trust oneself (Seneca)
unus, sed leo one but a lion
Urbi et orbi to the city (Rome) and the world (Gregory X)
Urbs aet©rna the eternal city (Rome) (Tibullus)
Ut desint vires, tamen est laudánda volúntas Even when the
strength is lacking, the will must still be praised (Ovid)
. . . ut iam magnitúdine labóret sua ¦ that it (the state of Rome)
labours under the burden of its own size (Livy)
ut infra as below
ut pictúra po©sis as in painting so in poetry (Horace)
Ut sem©ntem f©ceris, ita metes As you sow so shall you reap (Cicero)
ut supra as above
útile dulci the useful with the sweet

Vade mecum Go with me (a ˜vademecum™ is something one always
has to hand)
Vade retro me, Sátana Get thee behind me, Satan (St Matthew™s

Common phrases and expressions

Vae victis Woe to the conquered (Livy)
vánitas vanitátum vanity of vanities (Ecclesiastes)
Variátio del©ctat Variety is pleasing
Várium et mutábile semper f©mina A woman is always ¬ckle and
changing (Virgil)
Veni, vidi, vici I came, I saw, I conquered (Caesar)
v©nia praedicandi permission to preach (can be given to people who
are not ordained)
v©rsio vulgáta ˜The Vulgate™ (name of St Jerome™s translation of the
Bible into Latin) 78“9
verso póllice with thumb turned (Juvenal; gesture meaning that a
gladiator should be killed)
Vestígia terrent The footprints are terrifying (Horace) (because they
go into the cave but there are none coming out again)
via m©dia a compromise
vice versa with the order reversed
victor ludórum a male sports champion
Victrix causa deis plácuit, sed victa Catóni The victor™s cause
found favour with the gods, that of the vanquished with
Cato (Lucan)
victrix ludórum a female sports champion
vide (as an instruction in a reference to a passage in a book etc.) see,
Vídeo melióra probóque, deterióra sequor I see and esteem those
things which are better and go after those that are worse (Ovid)
Víncere scis, Hánnibal, victória uti nescis You know how to win,
Hannibal, but not how to use your victory (Livy)
vínculum matrimónii the bond of marriage
Vino p©llite curas Drown your sorrows in drink (Horace)
Virtus et summa pot©stas non cóeunt Virtue and high power do
not go together (Lucan)
Vita brevis, ars longa Life is short, art is long(-lasting)
Vitae summa brevis spem nos vetat incoháre longam The
shortness of life stops us nurturing long-lasting hopes (Horace)
vitam imp©ndere vero devote one™s life to the truth (Juvenal)
Vívere tota vita disc©ndum est You must learn to live the whole of
your life (Seneca)
Vívitur parvo bene One can live well on a little (Horace)

Common phrases and expressions

Vos estis sal terrae You are the salt of the earth (St Matthew™s
vox clamántis in des©rto a voice crying in the desert (St Matthew™s
vox pópuli public opinion

Suggested reading

The best reference work in English for things to do with Greece and
Rome is The Oxford Classical Dictionary. The third revised edition,
edited by Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth, contains many
articles on topics covered in this book such as education, naming, and
the law, as well as details of all the writers and political ¬gures men-
tioned here; and each article comes with suggestions for more reading
for those who want to take their interest further. Other useful works in
the OUP reference series are The Oxford Companion to Classical
Literature, The Oxford History of the Classical World, and The Oxford
Illustrated History of Medieval Europe. See too Encyclopedia of the
Middle Ages, ed.Andr© Vauchez (Cambridge: James Clarke, 2000).
A book which discusses in depth the way we relate to Latin
is Joseph Farrell™s Latin Language and Latin Culture: From Ancient
to Modern Times (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001).
Very well written introductory essays on Latin literature are
collected in Oliver Taplin (ed.), Literature in the Roman World
(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000). A larger and bang up-to-
date collection is The Blackwell Companion to Latin Literature, ed.
S. J. Harrison (Oxford: Blackwell, 2004). The standard introduction
in English to the way classical learning has been handed down over
the ages is L. D. Reynolds and N. G. Wilson, Scribes and Scholars:
A Guide to the Transmission of Greek and Latin Literature, 3rd edn.
(Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991).
A useful introduction to the history of Rome is Marcel Le Glay et al.,
A History of Rome (Oxford: Blackwell, 2001). This is a topic for which
it is handy to have at one™s side a work like T. Cornell and J. Matthews™s
excellent Atlas of the Roman World (Oxford: Phaidon, 1982), which
also has a limpid and succinct accompanying narrative.
For those who want to take their study of Latin further, a good
course is Reading Latin (2 vols.: Text and Grammar) by Peter Jones
Suggested reading

and Keith Sidwell (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986).
The authors have recently added a further volume entitled An
Independent Study Guide to Reading Latin (2000) precisely for
those who are working on their own without a teacher. If you want
to take your reading beyond this, the obvious next port of call is the
huge range of Latin texts with facing English translations in the
Loeb Classical Library, published in the UK by Heinemann and in
the United States by Harvard University Press. Some of the editions
of Latin works in the Oxford World™s Classics series also have the
Latin text on the facing pages, whereas the many excellent transla-
tions in the Penguin Classics series come with useful notes but not
the original texts.
Latin texts from medieval times and later are usually less readily
available. Many are, however, translated into English, and some
well-known authors are included in the series mentioned above.
Still, most texts are published only in Latin, and are sometimes quite
hard to come by. A good way to start is to use the text collection
Medieval Latin, ed. K. P. Harrington, 2nd edn. (Chicago: University
of Chicago Press, 1997).
Once you move on to reading texts on your own, you will also
need a good basic dictionary such as Cassell™s Latin Dictionary (now
published by Continuum, London and New York) or C. T. Lewis,
Elementary Latin Dictionary (Oxford: Oxford University Press,
1963). The latter is an abridged version of a monument of
nineteenth-century scholarship, still in print, namely A Latin
Dictionary by C. T. Lewis and Charles Short (Oxford: Oxford
University Press,). There is an on-line version available via the
Perseus website (see below). The most authoritative Latin“English
dictionary now is, however, P. Glare™s Oxford Latin Dictionary
(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1968“82), which draws on
sources not available to Lewis and Short, but which only contains
words from texts up to about 200 AD, whereas Lewis and Short also
draws on later texts, incuding ecclesiastical ones and the early Latin
translations of the Bible. For medieval Latin, the ¬rst place to go is

Suggested reading

Revised Medieval Latin Word-List by R. E. Latham (Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 1965).
Philip Baldi, The Foundations of Latin (Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter,
1999; paperback 2002) is an excellent compendium of linguistic
information about the structure of Latin, its history and relations to
other languages, and contains samples of various kinds of (mainly
non-literary) texts. A very good small manual on the pronunciation
of Latin, aimed at the general reader, is W. Sidney Allen, Vox Latina
(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970). For information
about the Latin language and Latin literature in the Middle Ages, see
Medieval Latin: An Introduction and Bibliographical Guide, ed.
F. A. C. Mantello and A. G. Rigg (Washington, DC: Catholic
University of America Press, 1996). For later times still: J. Ijsewijn,
Companion to Neo-Latin Studies (2 vols., Leuven: University Press,
1990, 1998).
For Latin animal and plant names, consult A. F. Gotch, Latin
Names Explained: A Guide to the Classi¬cation of Reptiles, Birds
and Mammals (London: Blandford/Cassell, 1995). Amazingly, the
¬rst ever English translation, by Stephen Freer, of Linnaeus™
Philosophia Botanica has only just been published (Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 2003).
One should not of course forget the worldwide web, which has a
huge collection of resources for both the expert and the aspiring
Latinist.Typing ˜Latin language™ into Google yields over two million
hits, which should satisfy even the most enthusiastic browser! The
principal site is probably www.perseus.tufts.edu, which has a vast
repertory of texts and translations, and contains links to on-line
grammars and dictionaries and other sites of interest to Latinists. It
is possible to ¬nd and download most Latin texts from antiquity, and
very many from later periods as well.

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abbreviations (in manuscripts) 119“20 Bologna, University of 71
Abelard, Petrus 137“41, 142“3 Boniface, St 95
ablative 187“8 book rolls 28“9
accusative 186“7 botany, see Linnaeus
adjectives 104,191“4, see also word Britain 48, 96“100 see also the Britons
classes and England
adoption 41 Britons, the 75“6, see also Britain
Aeneid, The, see Virgil Brutus 25
Agricola, see also Tacitus 75“6
agriculture 13, 18“19 Caesar, Gaius Julius 24“5; Gallic War
Agrippina 74 36; 37“8
alchemy 160“1 calendar, Julian 43
Alcuin 95“6, 97, 146 Cambridge, University of 100, 111
Alexander the Great 20 Carmina Burana 136
Alfred the Great 97 Carthage 14, 45


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