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Social Psychology
Social Psychology
Third Edition




Kenneth S. Bordens Irwin A. Horowitz
Indiana University”Purdue University Fort Wayne Oregon State University
Social Psychology, 3rd Edition

Copyright ©2008 by Freeload Press
Illustration used on cover © 2008 JupiterImages Corporation

ISBN 1-930789-04-1

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or
by any means, electronic, mechanical, recording, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written
permission of the publisher.

Printed in the United States of America by Freeload Press.


10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
xi
Preface

1 Understanding Social Behavior 1

2 The Social Self 29

3 Social Perception: Understanding
Other People 61

4 Prejudice and Discrimination 103

5 Attitudes 155

6 Persuasion and Attitude Change 185

7 Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience 231

8 Group Processes 281

9 Interpersonal Attraction and Close
Relationships 315

10 Interpersonal Aggression 357

11 Prosocial Behavior and Altruism 401

Glossary G-1

References R-1

Name Index I-1

Subject Index I-11




v
xi
Preface

Managing Self-Presentations 53
1 Understanding Social Behavior 1
Self-Esteem and Impression Management 53
Social Psychology and the Understanding of Social
Self-Monitoring and Impression Management 53
Behavior 2
Self-Presentation and Manipulative Strategies 54
A Model for Understanding Social Behavior 3
Self-Handicapping 54
Expanding Lewin™s Model 5
The Impression We Make on Others 56
Social Psychology and Related Fields 7
The Life of James Carroll Revisited 57
Research in Social Psychology 9
Experimental Research 10 Chapter Review 58
Correlational Research 15
3 Social Perception: Understanding
Settings for Social Psychological Research 16
Other People 61
The Role of Theory in Social Psychological
Impression Formation: Automaticity and Social
Research 16
Perception 63
What Do We Learn from Research in Social
Automatic Processing 63
Psychology? 20
The Impression Others Make on Us: How Do We
Ethics and Social Psychological Research 21
“Read” People? 69
Rick Rescorla and 9/11 Revisited 22
How Accurate Are Our Impressions? 69
Chapter Review 24
Con¬dence and Impression Formation 70
2 The Social Self 29 If at First You Don™t Like Someone, You May Never Like
Them 70
Self-Concept 30
Person Perception: Reading Faces and Catching
Self-Knowledge: How We Know Thyself? 30
Liars 71
The Self and Memory 32
The Attribution Process: Deciding Why People Act As
Religion and the Self 34
They Do 74
The Self: The In¬‚uence of Groups and Culture 35
Heider™s Early Work on Attribution 74
Self-Esteem: Evaluating the Self 40
Correspondent Inference Theory 75
Internal In¬‚uences on Self-Esteem 41
Covariation Theory 76
Self-Esteem and Stigma 44
Dual-Process Models 78
Self-Esteem and Cultural In¬‚uences 45
Intentionality and Attributions 79
What™s So Good about High Self-Esteem? 45
Attribution Biases 80
Implicit and Explicit Self-Esteem 46
Misattributions 80
Self-Control: How People Regulate Their Behavior 46
The Fundamental Attribution Error 81
Self-Control and Self-Regulation 46
The Actor-Observer Bias 83
The Cost and Ironic Effects of Self-Control 48
The False Consensus Bias 84
Thinking about Ourselves 49
Constructing an Impression of Others 84
Self-Serving Cognitions 49
The Signi¬cance of First Impressions 84
Maintaining Self-Consistency 50
Schemas 85
Self-Awareness 51
The Con¬rmation Bias 87
Self-Knowledge and Self-Awareness 52
Shortcuts to Reality: Heuristics 88

vii
Contents
viii

Positive Psychology: Optimism, Cognition, Health, Reducing Prejudice 144
and Life 90 Contact between Groups 144
Optimism and Cognition 90 Personalizing Out-Group Members 146
Optimism and Health 90 Reducing the Expression of Prejudice through
Social Norms 146
Optimism and Happiness 91
Reducing Prejudice through Training 147
Cognitive Optimism: An Evolutionary Interpretation 95
A Success Story: The Disarming of Racism in the U.S.
Bottom Line 95
Army 148
The Vincennes Revisited 96
The Mormon Experience Revisited 149
Chapter Review 96
Chapter Review 150
4 Prejudice and Discrimination 103
5 Attitudes 155
The Dynamics of Prejudice, Stereotypes,
What Are Attitudes? 157
and Discrimination 104
Allport™s De¬nition of Attitudes 157
Prejudice 104
Attitude Structures 158
Stereotypes 106
Attitudes as an Expression of Values 159
Discrimination 112
Explicit and Implicit Attitudes 160
The Persistence and Recurrence of Prejudice and
How Are Attitudes Measured? 161
Stereotypes 112
The Attitude Survey 161
Individual Differences and Prejudice: Personality and
Behavioral Measures 162
Gender 114
Cognitive Measures: The Implicit Association
The Authoritarian Personality 114
Test (IAT) 163
Social Dominance Orientation 116
How Are Attitudes Formed? 164
Openness to New Experience and
Agreeableness 117 Mere Exposure 164
Gender and Prejudice 117 Direct Personal Experience 165
Operant and Classical Conditioning 165
The Social Roots of Prejudice 118
Observational Learning 166
Modern Racism 120
The Effect of the Mass Media 167
Changing Social Norms 122
The Heritability Factor 169
The Cognitive Roots of Prejudice: From Categories to
The Importance of Groups and Networks 170
Stereotypes 123
Social Networks 172
Identi¬cation with the In-Group 125
The Role of Language in Maintaining Bias 128 Attitudes and Behavior 172
The Con¬rmation Bias 132 An Early Study of Attitudes and Behavior 173
The Out-Group Homogeneity Bias 132 Theory of Planned Behavior 174
The Difference between Prejudiced and Nonprejudiced The Importance of Conviction 175
Individuals 134 The Nonrational Actor 177
The Consequences of Being a Target of Prejudice 135 Why We Donʼt Like Those Who Think Differently Than
Ways Prejudice Can Be Expressed 135 We Do: Naïve Realism and Attitudes 179
Prejudice-Based Jokes 136 IDA Tarbell Revisited 181
Stereotype Threat 136 Chapter Review 181
Collective Threat 140
6 Persuasion and Attitude Change 185
Expecting to Be a Target of Prejudice 141
The Yale Communication Model 186
Coping with Prejudice 141
The Persuasion Process 186
Raising the Value of a Stigmatized Group 141
The Communicator 187
Making In-Group Comparisons 142
The Message and the Audience 192
Anticipating and Confronting Prejudice 142
Compensating for Prejudice 143
Contents ix

The Cognitive Approach to Persuasion 199 Disobedience 269
The Elaboration Likelihood Model 199 Breaking with Authority 269
The Effect of Mood on Processing 201 Reassessing the Legitimacy of the Authority 270
The Effect of Personal Relevance on Processing 204 Strength in Numbers 271
The Impact of Attitude Accessibility on The Jury Room Revisited 273
Elaboration 205 Chapter Review 274
Do Vivid Messages Persuade Better Than Nonvivid
8 Group Processes 281
Messages? 206
Need for Cognition: Some Like to Do It the Hard What Is a Group? 282
Way 207 Characteristics of Groups 283
The Heuristic Model of Persuasion 208 What Holds a Group Together? 284
Cognitive Dissonance Theory: A Model of Self- How and Why Do Groups Form? 284
Persuasion 209 Meeting Basic Needs 284
Cognitive Dissonance Theory 209 Roles in Groups 285
Alternatives to Cognitive Dissonance Theory 217
How Do Groups In¬‚uence the Behavior of
Persuading the Masses through Propaganda 220 Individuals? 286
Propaganda: A De¬nition 220 The Effects of an Audience on Performance 286
Characteristics of Propaganda 220 Group Performance: Conditions That Decrease or
The Aims of Propaganda 221 Increase Motivation of Group Members 288
Propaganda Techniques 222 Groups, Self-Identity, and Intergroup
Hitler™s Rise to Power 223 Relationships 292
The Leopold and Loeb Case Revisited 226 The Power of Groups to Punish: Social Ostracism 293
Chapter Review 226 Deindividuation and Anonymity: The Power of Groups
to Do Violence 295
7 Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience 231
Group Performance 296
Conformity: Going Along with the Crowd 233 Individual Decisions and Group Decisions 296
Informational and Normative Social In¬‚uence 233
The Harder the Problem, the Better the Group 298
Social Norms: The Key to Conformity 234
The Effect of Leadership Style on Group Decision
Classic Studies in Conformity 235 Making 300
How Does Social In¬‚uence Bring About Factors That Affect the Decision-Making Ability of a
Conformity? 238 Group 302
Factors That Affect Conformity 239 Group Composition 302
Minority In¬‚uence 243 Group Size 304
Can a Minority In¬‚uence the Majority? 244 Group Cohesiveness 304
Majority and Minority In¬‚uence: Two Processes or The Dynamics of Group Decision Making: Decision
One? 245
Rules, Group Polarization, and Groupthink 305
Compliance: Responding to a Direct Request 247 Group Decisions: How Groups Blend Individual
Foot-in-the-Door Technique 247 Choices 305
Door-in-the-Face Technique 251 Group Polarization 306
Compliance Techniques: Summing Up 253 Groupthink 307
Obedience 254 The Challenger Explosion Revisited 309

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