<<

. 107
( 115 .)



>>

Van Boven, L., Kruger, J., Savitsky, K., & Gilovich, T. (2000). Vunk, R. (1999). Effects of outcome dependency on
When social worlds collide: Overconfidence in the correspondence bias. Personality and Social Psychology
multiple audience problem. Personality and Social Bulletin, 21, 382“389.
Psychology Bulletin, 26, 619“628. Waaland, P., & Keeley, S. (1985). Police decision making in wife
Van den Bos, K., Wilke, H. A. M., & Lund, E. A. (1998). When abuse: The impact of legal and extralegal factors. Law
do we need procedural fairness? The role of trust in and Human Behavior, 9, 355“366.
authority. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Walford, R. (1986). The 120-year diet. Los Angeles, CA: UCLA
75, 1449“1458. Press.
Van Kippenberg, D., de Vries, N., &Van Kippenberg, A. (1990). Wallach, M. A., & Kogan, N. (1965). The roles of information,
Group status, group size and attitude polarization. discussion and consensus in group risk taking. Journal of
European Journal of Social Psychology, 29, 121“134. Experimental Social Psychology, 1, 1“19.
Van Laar, C., Levin, S., Sinclair, S., & Sidanius, J. (2005). The Wallach, M. A., Kogan, N., & Bem, D. J. (1962).
effect of university roommate contact on ethnic Group influence on individual risk-taking. Journal of
attitudes and behavior. Journal of Experimental Social Abnormal and Social Psychology, 65, 75“86.
Psychology, 41, 329“345.
Walster (Hatfield), E., & Festinger, L. (1962). The effectiveness
Van Velsor, P. (1990). Eating behavior: Externality and social of overheard conversations. Journal of Abnormal and
influence. Unpublished manuscript, The University of Social Psychology, 65, 395“402.
Toledo, Toledo, OH.
Walster, F., Walster, G. W., & Berscheid, E. (1978). Equity
Van Vugt, M., & Hart, C. M. (2004). Social identity as theory and research,. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
social glue: The origins of group loyalty. Journal of
Walton, M. D., Sachs, D., Ellington, R., Hazlewood, A., Grilfiti,
Personality and Social Psychology, 86, 585“598.
S., & Bass, D. (1988). Physical stigma and the pregnancy
Vandello, J. A., & Cohen, D. (1999). Patterns of individualism role: Receiving help from strangers. Sex Roles, 18,
and collectivism across the United States. Journal of 323“331.
Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 279“292.
Wang, S. S., Brownell, K. D., & Wadden, T. A. (2004).
Vaughn, D. (1986). Uncoupling: Turning points in intimate The influence of the stigma of obesity on overweight
relationships. New York: Oxford University Press. individuals. International Journal of Obesity, 28,
Vedantam, S. (2005). See no bias. Group Dynamics, 6, 101“115. 1333“1337.
Vierikko, E., Pulkkinen, L., Kaprio, J., Viken, R., & Rose, R. Ward, C. H., & Eisler, R. M. (1987). Type A behavior,
J. (2003). Sex differences in genetic and environmental achievement striving, and a dysfunctional self-evaluation
effects on aggression. Aggressive Behavior, 29, 55“68. system. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53,
318“326.
Vinokur, A., & Burnstein, F. (1974). Effects of partially shared
persuasive arguments on group-induced shifts. Journal Watson, P. W., & Thornhill, P. (1994). Fluctuating asymmetry
of Personality and Social Psychology, 29, 305“315. and sexual selection. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 9,
21“25.
Vinokur, A., & Burnstein, F. (1978). Depolarization of attitudes.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, Weary, C., & Edwards, I. A. (1994). Social cognition and clinical
872“885. psychology: Anxiety, depression, and the processing of
information about others. In P. S. Wyer & T. K. Srull
(Eds.), Handbook of social cognition (2nd ed., Vol. 2, pp.
89“338.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
References
R-56

Weiner, B. (1993). On sin versus sickness: A theory of perceived
Webb, E. J., Campbell, D. T., Schwartz, R. D., Sechrist. L., &
responsibility and social motivation. American
Grove, J. (1981). Nonreactive measures in the social
Psychologist, 48, 957“965.
sciences (2nd ed). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Weiner, B., Figueroa-Munoz, A., & Kakihara, C. (1991).
Weber, R., Ritterfield, U., & Mathiak, K. (2006). Does playing
violent video games induce aggression? Empirical The goals of excuses and communication strategies
evidence of a functional magnetic resonance imaging related to causal perceptions. Journal of Personality and
study. Media Psychology, 8, 39“60. Social Psychology, 17, 4“13.
Webster, T. M., King, N. H., & Kassin, S. M. (1991). Voices Weiner, B., Perry, R. P., & Magnusson, J. (1988). An
from, the empty chair: The missing witness inference and attributional analysis of reactions to stigmas. Journal of
the jury. Law and Human Behavior, 15, 31“42. Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 738“748.
Wegner, D. (1986). Transactive memory: A contemporary analysis Weiner, I. B. (Ed.) (1997). Personality factors in genocide: The
of the group mind. In B. Mullen & G. Goethals (Eds.), Rorschachs of Nazi war criminals [Abstract, Accession
Theories of group behavior (pp. 185“208). New York: Number 2003-02797-003]. PsycInfo.
Springer-Verlag. Weisman, A. D. (1991). Bereavement and companion animals.
Wegner, D. (1988). Stress and mental control. In S. Fisher & Omega: Journal of Death and Dying, 22, 241“248.
I. Reason (Eds.), Handbook of life stress, cognition, and Weiss, R. (1973). Loneliness: The experience of emotional and
health (pp. 683“697). Chichester, England: Wiley. social isolation. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Wegner, D. M. (1989). White bears and unwanted thoughts. Weisse, I., Neselhof-Kendail, B., Fleck-Kandath, B., & Baum, A.
New York: Viking/Penguin. (1990). Psychosocial aspects of AIDS prevention among
Wegner, D. M. (1993). Thought suppression. In M. Zanna (Ed.), heterosexuals. In I. Edwards, R. S. Tindale, L. Heath,
Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 25, & F. Posavek (Eds.), Social influence processes and
pp. 193“225). Academic Press: New York. prevention (Vol. 1, pp. 15“38). New York: Plenum.
Wegner, D. M. (1996). A computer network model of human Weisz, C., & Jones, F. F. Some consequences of expectancies for
transactive memory. Social Cognition, 13, 319“339. person perception: Target-based versus category-based
expectancies. Unpublished manuscript, Princeton
Wegner, D. M., Ansfield, M. E., & Pilloff, D. (1998). The pun
University.
and the pendulum: Ironic effects of mental control of
action. Psychological Science, 9, 196“199. Wells, B. E., & Twenge, J. M. (2005). Changes in young
peopleʼs sexual behavior and attitudes, 1943“1999:
Wegner, D. M., & Bargh, J. (1998). Control and automaticity
A cross-temporal meta-analysis. Review of General
in social life. In D. T. Gilbert, S. Fiske, & G. Lindsey
Psychology, 9, 249“261.
(Eds.), Handbook of social psychology (4th ed., pp. 446“
496). Boston: McGraw-Hill. Wells, G. L. (1995). Scientific study of witness memory:
Implications for public and legal policy. Psychology,
Wegner, D. M., & Erber, R. (1992). The hyperaccessibility of
Law, and Public Policy, 1, 726“731.
suppressed thoughts. Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology, 63, 903“912. Wells, G. L., & Gavanski, 1. (1989). Mental simulation of
causality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,
Wegner, D. M., Lane, J. D., & Dimitri, S. (1994). The allure of
56, 161“169.
secret relationships. Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology, 66, 287“300. West, S. G., Whitney, G., & Schnedler, R. (1975). Helping
a motorist in distress: The effects of sex, race, and
Wegner, D. M., & Pennebaker, J. W. (Eds.). (1993). Handbook
neighborhood. Journal of Personality and Social
of mental control. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Psychology, 31, 691“698.
Wegner, D. M., & Wheatley, T. (1999). What cognitive
Wheeler, L., Reis, H., & Nezlek, J. (1983). Loneliness, social
mechanism makes us feel as if we are acting consciously
interaction, and sex roles. Journal of Personality and
and willfully? American Psychologist, 54, 462“479.
Social Psychology, 45, 943“953.
Weinberg, A. (1957). Attorney for the damned. New York: Simon
Whitley, B. (1999). Right-wing authoritarianism, social dominance
& Schuster.
orientation, and prejudice. Journal of Personality and
Weinberg, A., & Weinberg, L. (Eds.). (1961). The muckrakers. Social Psychology, 77, 126“134.
New York: Capricorn Books.
Whitney, J. C., & Smith, R. A. (1983). Effect of group
Weiner, B. (1986). An attributional theory of motivation and cohesiveness on attitude polarization and the acquisition
emotion. New York: Springer-Verlag. of knowledge in a strategic planning context. Journal of
Marketing Research, 20, 167“176.
Weiner, B. (1991). Metaphors on motivation and attribution.
American Psychologist, 46, 921“930. Whyte, G. (1989). Groupthink reconsidered. Academy of
Management Review, 14, 40“56.
References R-57

Wicker, A. W. (1969). Attitudes versus actions: The relationship of Williams, K. D., & Karau, S. 1. (1991). Social loafing and
social compensation: The effects of expectations of
verbal and overt behavioral responses to attitude objects.
co-worker performance. Journal of Personality and Social
Journal of Social Issues, 25, 41“78.
Psychology, 61, 570“581.
Wicklund, R. A. (1975). Objective self-awareness. In
Williams, K. D., & Sommer, K. L. (1997). Social ostracism
L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental
by oneʼs coworkers: Does rejection lead to loafing or
social psychology, (Vol. 8, pp. 319“342). New York:
compensation? Personality and Social Psychology
Academic Press.
Bulletin, 23, 693“706.
Widom, C. S. (1992, October). The cycle of violence. National
Williams, K. D., & Williams, K. B. (1989). Impact of source
Institute of Justice Research in Brief, 1“6.
strength on two compliance techniques. Basic and Applied
Wiebe, D. J. (1991). Hardiness and stress moderation: A test of
Social Psychology, 10, 149“160.
proposed mechanisms. Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology, 60, 89“99. Williams, K. D., & Zadro, L. (2001). Ostracism: On being
ignored, excluded and rejected. In M. Leary (Ed.),
Wiegman, O., Kuttschreuter, M., & Baarda, B. (1992).
Rejection. New York: Oxford University Press.
A longitudinal study of the effects of television viewing
on aggressive and prosocial behaviors. British Journal of Williams, R. (1989). The trusting heart. Psychology Today, 23,
Social Psychology, 31, 147“164. 36“42.
Wilder, D. A. (1977). Perception of groups, size of opposition, Williams, R. B., Jr., & Barefoot, J. C. (1988). Coronary-prone
and social influence. Journal of Experimental Social behavior: The emerging role of the hostility complex. In
Psychology, 13, 253“268. B. K. Houston & C. R. Snyder (Eds.), Type A behavior
pattern (pp. 189“211). New York: Plenum.
Wilder, D. A. (1986). Social categorization: implications for
creation and reduction of intergroup bias. In L. Berkowitz Williams, S. S., Kimble, D. L., Covell, N. H., Weiss, L. I.-I.,
(Ed.), Advances in experimental psychology (Vol. 19, Newton, K., Fisher, J. D., & Fisher, W. A. (1992).
pp. 293“355). New York: Academic Press. College students use implicit personality theory instead
of safer sex. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 22,
Wilder, D. A., & Shapiro, P. (1984). The role of outgroup salience
921“933.
in determining social identity. Journal of Personality and
Social Psychology, 47, 177“194. Williams, W. M., & Steinberg, R. J. (1988). Group intelligence:
Why some groups are better than others. Intelligence, 12,
Wilder, D. A., & Shapiro, P. (1991). Facilitation of outgroup
351“357.
stereotypes by enhanced ingroup identity. Journal of
Experimental Social Psychology, 27, 431“452. Williamson, G. M., & Clark, M. S. (1989). Providing help and
desired relationship type as determinants of changes in
Wilford, J. N. (1992, February 11). Nubian treasures reflect black
mood and self-evaluation. Journal of Personality and
influence on Egypt. The New York Times, PCI.
Social Psychology, 56, 722“734.
Williams v. Florida. (1970). 399 U.S.
Wills, T. A. (1987) Help seeking as a coping mechanism. In
Williams, A. W., & Lund, A. K. (1992). Injury control. American C. R. Snyder & C. E. Ford (Eds.), Coping with negative
Psychologist, 47, 1036“1039. life events: Clinical and social psychological perspectives
(pp. 19“50). New York: Plenum.
Williams, K. D. (1994). The relations between intentions to vote
and actual voting behavior. Unpublished manuscript, Wilson, E. O. (1975). Sociobiology: The new synthesis.
University of Toledo. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Williams, K. D. (1997). Social ostracism: The causes and Wilson, E. O. (1978). On human nature. Cambridge, MA: Harvard
consequences of “the silent treatment.” In R. Kowalski University Press.
(Ed.), Aversive interpersonal relations. New York:
Wilson, G. (1981). The Coolidge effect: An evolutionary account of
Plenum.
human sexuality. New York: Morrow.
Williams, K. D. (2001). Ostracism: The power of silence. New
Wilson, I. P. (1976). Motivation, modeling, and altruism: A person
York: Guilford Press.
x situation analysis. Journal of Personality and Social
Williams, K. D., Forgas, J. P., & von Hippel, W. (Eds.). Psychology, 34, 1078“1086.
(2005). The social outcast: Ostracism, social exclusion,
rejection, and bullying. New York: The Psychology Press. Wilson, M. G., Northcraft, G. B., & Neale M. A. (1989).
Information competition and vividness effects in on-line
Williams, K. D., Harkins, S. G., & Latan©, B. (1981). judgments. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision
Identifiability as a deterrent to social loafing: Two Processes, 44, 132“139.
cheering experiments. Journal of Personality and Social
Wilson, T. (2002). Strangers to ourselves: Discovering the
Psychology, 40, 303“311.
adaptive unconscious. Cambridge: Harvard University
Press.
References
R-58

Wood, W. (1987). Meta-analytic review of sex differences in
Wilson, T., Lindsey, S., & Schooler, T. Y. (2000). A model of
competence. Psychological Bulletin, 102, 53“71.
dual attitudes. Psychological Review, 107, 101“126.
Wood, W., Wong, F. Y., & Chachere, J. G. (1990). Effects of
Wilson, T. D., & Dunn, E. (2004). Self-knowledge: Its limits,
media violence on viewersʼ aggression in unconstrained
value, and potential for improvement. Annual Review of
social interaction. Psychological Bulletin 108, 37“147.
Psychology, 55, 493“518.
Woodall, K. L., & Mathews, K. (1993). Changes in and
Wilson, T. D., Dunn, U. S., Kraft. D., & Lisle, D. L. (1989).
stability of hostile characteristics: Results from a 4-year
Introspection, attitude change, and attitude behavior
longitudinal study of children. Journal of Personality and
consistency: The disruptive effects of explaining why
we feel the way we do. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances Social Psychology, 64, 491“499.
in experimental social psychology (Vol. 22, pp. 287“ Worchel, S., Coutant-Sassic, D., & Grossman, M. (1991).
344). New York: Academic Press. A developmental approach to group dynamics: A model
and illustrative research. In S. Worchel, W. Wood, &
Wilson, T. D., & Gilbert, D. T. (2005). Affective forecasting:
I. A. Simpson (Eds.), Group process and productivity
Knowing what to want. Current Directions in
(pp. 181“202). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Psychological Science, 14, 131“134.
Worchel, S., & Shackelford, S. L. (1991). Groups under stress:
Wilson, T. D., & Kraft, D. (1988). The effects of analyzing
The influence of group structure and environment
reasons on affectively- versus cognitively-based
on process and performance. Personality and Social
attitudes. Unpublished raw data. Cited in Wilson,
Psychology Bulletin, 17, 640“647.
T. D., Dunn, D. S., Kraft, D., & Lisle, D. L. (1989),
Introspection, attitude change, and attitude behavior Wray, S. (1999). On electronic civil disobedience. Peace Review,
consistency: The disruptive effects of explaining why 11, 107“111.
we feel the way we do. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances
Wright, F. F., Luus, C. A. E., & Christie, S. D. (1990). Does
in experimental social psychology (Vol. 22, pp.
group discussion facilitate the use of consensus
287“344). New York: Academic Press.
information in making causal attributions? Journal of
Wilson, T. D., Lindsey, S., & Schooler, T. V. (2000). A model of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 261“269.
dual attitudes. Psychological Review, 107, 101“126.
Wright, P. H. (1982). Menʼs friendships, womenʼs friendships and
Wilson, T. D., Meyers, J., & Gilbert, D. T. (2003). “How happy the alleged inferiority of the latter. Sex Roles, 8, 1“21.
was I, anyway?” A retrospective impact bias. Social
Wrightsman, L. S. (1969). Wallace supporters and adherence
Cognition, 21, 407“432.
to “law and order.” Journal of Personality and Social
Winch, R. G. (1958). Mate selection: A theory of complementary Psychology, 13, 17“22.
needs. New York: Harper & Row.
Wyer, R. S., Jr., & Srull, T. K. (1986). Human cognition in its
Winquist, J. R., & Larson, J. R., Jr. (1998). Information social context. Psychological Review, 93, 322“359.
pooling: When it impacts group decision-making.
Yakimovich, D., & Salz, E. (1971). Helping behavior: The cry for
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74,
help. Psychonomic Science, 23, 427“428.
371“377.
Ybarra, O. (1999). Misanthropic person memory when the need to
Woike, B., Gershkovich, I., Piorkowski, R., & Polo, M. (1999).
self-enhance is absent. Personality and Social Psychology
The role of motives in the content and structure of

<<

. 107
( 115 .)



>>