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behavior and, 172“179
social information-processing view of,
external, 75
importance of conviction and,
392“393
Heiderʼs early work on, 74“75
175“177
social-interactional model and, 377“379
internal, 75
mindless behavior in everyday life
socialization of, 374“375
misdirected, 80“81
and, 177“178
social learning explanation of, 373“388
person, 76
nonrational actor and, 177“178
social learning theory and, 374“375
situational, 76
theory of planned behavior and,
sociobiology and, 362“363
Audience(s)
174“175
symbolic, 359
effects on performance, 286“288
change in, cognitive dissonance and,
television and, 385“386
¬tting message to, 195
209“210
types of, 358“359
inoculating of, against message, 195“196
dual model of, 159
viewing sexual violence and, 388“391
multiple, persuasion of, 197“199
explicit, 160“161
See also Violence
view of, discrepancy of message from,
as expression of values, 159“160
196“197




I-11
Subject Index
I-12

Automatic processing, 63 Boston Massacre, and propaganda, 221“222 Commitment, love and, 321
Authoritarianism, gender and, 117“118 Brain mechanisms, of aggression, 364“365 Committee of Correspondence, 222
Authoritarian personality, 114“116 Branch Davidians Communal relationships, 342“343
Authority attack on, 189, 215 Communicator
breaking with, 269“270 membership in, dissonance theory and, credibility of, limits on, 189“191
legitimacy of, reassessing, 270“271 215“217 in Yale communication model, 187“192
Autobiographical memory, 32“33 Brown v. Board of Education, school integration credibility of, 187“191
emotions and, 33“34 and, 119 expertise of, 188
Autokinetic effect, 235 Byrd, James, hate crime against, 124 trustworthiness of, 188
Automaticity Bystander effect, 413“418 Communists, and propaganda, 221
behavior and, 65“66 Comparison
C
emotions and, 66“68 downward, 285
in social perception, 63“64 social, need for, groups satisfying, 285
Calley, William, 257
Autonomous altruism, 429 Compensation
Carroll, James, 29“30, 57
Availability heuristics, 88 primary, 143
Catholic Church, and propaganda, 221
Aversive racists, 121 secondary, 143
Caverly, Judge, 185“186, 226
Avoidance, prejudice as, 135 social, in groups, 290“292
Central route processing, in message
Complementarity, in interpersonal attraction, 329
elaboration, 200
B Compliance, 247“254
mood and, 201“203
door-in-the-face technique of, 251“253
Bandwagon effect, 273 Challenger tragedy, 281“282, 308“309
foot-in-the-door technique of, 247“250
Base-rate data, de¬nition of, 89 Chameleon effect, 66
low-ball technique of, 253“254
Base-rate fallacy, de¬nition of, 89 Child abuse/neglect, aggression and, 380
Conditioning
Basic research, 19 Child-rearing style, altruism as function of,
classical, in attitude formation, 166
Beauty, evolutionary psychology and, 335 432“433
operant, in attitude formation, 165“166
Behavior(s) Classical conditioning, in attitude formation,
Con¬dence, impression formation and, 70
attitudes and, 172“179. See also 166
Con¬rmation, behavioral, 86
Attitude(s), behavior and Cognition(s)
Con¬rmation bias, 87“88
in attitude structures, 158 in attitude structures, 158
stereotypes and, 132
group in¬‚uence on, 286“292 need for, 207“208
Con¬‚ict avoiding couple, 348
helping. See Helping behavior social, de¬nition of, 5
Con¬‚ict in relationships, 345“347
mindless, in everyday life, 177“178 Cognitive approach, to persuasion, 199“208
Conformity, 233“243
planned, theory of, 174“175 attitude accessibility and elaboration in,
in Asch experiments, 237“238
prosocial, in reducing aggression, 392 205“206
Asch paradigm and, 236“237
schemas and, 85“87 effect of mood on processing in,
classic studies in, 235“238
social, 1“24. See also Social behavior 201“203
cultural differences in, 243
Behavior, changing, smoking and, 217“219 effect of personal relevance on processing
de¬nition of, 233
Behavioral con¬rmation, 86 in, 204“205
factors affecting, 239“243
Behavioral control, perceived, behavioral elaboration likelihood model in,
gender and, 242“243
intention and, 174 199“201
historical differences in, 243
Belief perseverance, in impression-formation heuristic model of persuasion in, 208
minority in¬‚uence in, 243“247
process, 85 need for cognition in, 207“208
nature of task and, 239“240
Beltway sniper case, 357“358, 393“394 vividness of message in, 206“207
paths to, 237“238
Bias(es) Cognitive development, altruism as function
pressures for, groupthink and, 309
attribution, 81“84 of, 433
size of majority and, 240“241
egotistical, 53 Cognitive dissonance theory, 209“217
social in¬‚uence and, 238“239
hindsight, 20 alternatives to, 217“220
true partner and, 241“242
self-serving, 49 attitude change and, 209“210
Confounding variable, 13
con¬rmation, 87“88 attribution processes and, 214“215
de¬nition of, 13
stereotypes and, 132 cult membership and, 215“217
Consensus information, 76“77
and the IAT, 163“164 free choice and, 210“211
Consistency information, 76“77
in-group, 125“128 lessons of, 215
Consonance constraint satisfaction model, 212
biological perspective on, 127“128 postdecision dissonance and, 211“213
Consummate love, 323
language in maintaining, 128“132 responsibility and, 213“214
Contact hypothesis, on reducing prejudice,
out-group homogeneity, 132“134 reverse incentive effect and, 210
144“146
in persuasion process, 201 Cognitive intervention, in reducing aggression,
Context of question, attitude survey bias and, 162
physical attractiveness, 333“335 392“393
Control group, de¬nition of, 12
physique and, 333“335 Cognitive narrowing, obedience and, 270
Controlled processing, 63, 68
potential, in attitude survey, 162 Cognitive optimism, happiness and, 90“92
Conviction, importance of, 175“177
Biological explanations, of altruism, 408“410 Cohesiveness, of groups
Correlation(s)
Biological perspective, on in-group bias, de¬nition of, 284
illusory, stereotypes and, 128“131
127“128 group decision-making ability and,
negative, de¬nition of, 16
Biology, social psychology and, 7“8 304“305
positive, de¬nition of, 16
Black sheep effect, 293 interpersonal, 305
Correlational research, 15“16
Bonds, Barry, versus Babe Ruth, 163 task-based, 305
de¬nition of, 10
Books, in attitude formation, 167“168 Collective self, 35“36
Correlation coef¬cient, 15“16
Subject Index I-13

Correspondent inference theory, of attribution, Door-in-the-face technique, of compliance, False consensus attribution bias, 84
75“76 Family
251“253
Counterfactual thinking, 89 disruption of, aggression and, 380“381
Douglass, Frederick, 118
Covariation theory, of attribution, 76“77 reducing aggression in, 391“393
Downward comparison, 285
Credibility, of communicator, 187“191 Fear
E
limits on, 189“191 effectiveness of message and, 192“194
Cult membership, cognitive dissonance and, protection/motivation explanation of, 193
Ectomorphs, 333
215“217 Field experiment, 17“18
Ego depletion, de¬nition of, 49
Cultural differences, in conformity, 243 Field research, 17“18
Egoism, empathy versus, 404“406
Culture Field study, 17
Egotistical bias, 53
of honor, violence and, 381“384 Field survey, 18
Eichmann, Adolph, 256“259
in¬‚uence of, on self-concept, 35“37 Fixation time, attractiveness and, 332
Eichmannʼs fallacy, 257“258
in¬‚uence of, on self esteem, 45 Flexible correction model (FCM), 202
Elaboration likelihood model, 199“201
obedience and, 266 Foot-in-the-door technique, of compliance,
Emancipation Proclamation, 118
violent behavior and, 381“384 247“250
Emotional empathy, becoming rescuer and,
de¬nition of, 247
431
D hypotheses explaining, 249“250
Emotions
limits of, 251
Darrow, Clarence autobiographical memory and, 33“34
Four horsemen of the apocalypse, relationship
credibility and, 187, 189 automaticity and, 66“68
dissolution and, 347“348
discrepancy and, 196“197 Empathic accuracy, 325
Free choice, in dissonance theory, 210“211
persuasive skills of, 185“186, 226 Empathic joy, 408
Free riders, in group, 290
Deception, detection of, 71“74 Empathy
Friendships, 348“350
Decision making, group, 296“309 de¬nition of, 403
gender differences in, 349
dynamics of, 305“309 egoism versus, 404“406
over life cycle, 349“350
factors affecting, 302“305 emotional, becoming rescuer and, 431
Frustration-aggression link, 369“373
group cohesiveness and, 305 Empathy-altruism hypothesis, 404
components of, 370
group composition and, 302“303 challenging, 407“408
factors mediating, 371“373
group size and, 304 Empathy-punishment hypothesis, 407“408
Fundamental attribution error, 81“83
Endomorphs, 333
individual decision making versus,
discriminatory stereotypes and, 131“132
Enlightenment effect, 266
296“297
reasons for/correction of, 83
Entity theories, of implicit stereotypes, 111
leadership style and, 300“302
Equity theory, 341“342
racial effects and, 303
G
Ethics, social psychological research and,
Decision rule, 305“306
Gender
21“22, 23
Defensive ostracism, 294
aggression and, 360“361
Ethological theory, of aggression, 362
Deindividuation, 295“296
authoritarianism and, 114“116
Evaluation apprehension, social facilitation/
Dependence, paranoid social cognition and, 95
conformity and, 242“243
inhibition and, 286, 287, 288
Dependent variable, 11
friendships and, 349
Evil
Destructive obedience, 255, 256“259
obedience and, 264“265
banality of, 257“258
Devaluation, relational, 320
prejudice and, 117“118
responsibility for, 258“259
Differentness, paranoid social cognition and, 95
rescue and, 434
Evolutionary psychology, beauty and, 335
Diffusion of responsibility, bystander effect and,
Gender roles, in childrenʼs books, attitude
Exchange theories, 340“342
414
formation and, 167“168
Experience, direct personal, in attitude
Directive leaders, 300
Genetic explanation, of altruism, 408“410
formation, 165
Discrimination, 112“114
Genocide, 114, 125

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