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Experiment(s)
de¬nition of, 112
Genovese, Kitty, death of, 410“411
evaluating, 14“15
prejudice and, 135
Goebbels, Josef, 223“225
factorial, 13“14
self-categorization theory and, 126. See also
Group(s), 281“309
¬eld, 17“18
Prejudice; Racism; Sexism; Stereotype(s)
af¬liative, 283
Experimental group, de¬nition of, 12
Disinhibition, observational learning and, 375
attitude formation and, 170“171
Experimental research, 10“15
Disobedience, 269“273
characteristics of, 283
de¬nition of, 10
breaking with authority and, 269“270
cohesiveness of, 284
equivalence of groups in, 11“13
groupʼs effect on, 271“273
group decision-making ability and,
manipulating variables in, 12“13
role strain and, 269“270
304“305
Expertise, of communicator, 188
social climate and, 273
composition of, group decision-making
Explicit attitudes, 160“161
See also Obedience
ability and, 302“303
Explicit self-esteem, 46
Displaced aggression, 370
control, de¬nition of, 12
Exposure, mere, in attitude formation, 164“165
Distinctiveness, paranoid social cognition and, 95
decision making by, 396“297. See also
Extermination, prejudice and, 135
Distinctiveness information, 76“77
Decision making, group
Extraneous variable(s)
Distinctiveness theory, 32
de¬nition of, 283
controlling, 12“13
Distraction-con¬‚ict effect, on social facilitation,
deviates in, 286
de¬nition of, 12
288 equivalence of, 11“12
Divorce F experimental, de¬nition of, 12
aggression and, 380“381 formation of, 284“286
Facilitation, social, 286, 287, 288
predicting, 347“348 functional quality of, problem dif¬culty
Factorial experiment, 13
and, 298“300
Subject Index
I-14

in¬‚uence on behavior, 286“292 Heuristics Instrumental groups, 283
instrumental, 283 availability, 88 Instrumental values, 159
in meeting basic needs, 284“285 judgmental, stereotypes as, 111 Intellective issue, social in¬‚uence on, 239
members of, obeying leaders, 301“302 representativeness, 89“90 Interaction, de¬ned, 14
newcomers in, 285 Hill, D., 1“2 Interactionist view, of altruism, 434“436
obedience and, 264 Hindsight bias, 20 Internet relationships, 327“329
participation in, performance and, Hippler, Fritz, 223 Interpersonal aggression, 357“394. See also
288“292 Historical differences, in conformity, 243 Aggression
enhanced, 289 History, social psychology and, 7“9 Interpersonal attraction
free rides and, 290 Hitler, A., and rise to power, 223“224 determinants of, 327“338
social loa¬ng and, 290 Homophobia, gender and, 117“118 need for af¬liation and, 317
polarization of, 306“307 Hoover, J. Edgar, 29 need for intimacy and, 317
punishment by, 293“294 Hormonal in¬‚uences, on aggression, 365“366 roots of, 317
racial composition, effects of, 303 Hostile aggression, 358“359 Intimacy
roles in, 285“286 Hypothalamus, in aggression, 364 love and, 320“321
self-identity and, 292“296 Hypothesis, de¬nition of, 10 need for, 317
size of, group decision-making ability Intimate relationships. See Love; Relationships,
I
and, 304 close
social, identi¬cation with, 292“293 Introspection, in self-knowledge, 30“31
Ideal self, 46
transactive memory systems of, 296 Invulnerability, illusion of
Ignorance, pluralistic, bystander effect and,
use of information by, 298“300 groupthink and, 308
414
violence by, 295“296 lllusion(s)
J
Group norms, 283 of ef¬cacy, in small groups, 304
Groupthink, 307“309 of invulnerability Jews
conditions favoring, 308 groupthink and, 308 righteous rescuers and, 429“430
de¬nition of, 307 positive, 91 ¬ve-stage decision model applied to,
symptoms of, 308“309 of unanimity, groupthink and, 309 437“439
Illusory correlations, stereotypes and, 128“131 Irene Opdyke and, 401“403, 444
H Imagine-other perspective, on empathy, 404 stereotypes about, 131“132
Happiness Imagine-self perspective, on empathy, 404 Judgment, distortion of, conformity and, 237
cognitive optimism and, 90“92 Implicit Association Test (IAT), 163“164 Judgmental heuristics, stereotypes as, 111
future, effects of distressing and joyful Implicit attitudes, 160 Judgmental issue, social in¬‚uence on, 239
events on, 93“94 Implicit personality theory, 85“86 Just-world hypothesis, helping behavior and,
incompetence and, 94“95 Implicit self-esteem, 46 421
Heider, Fritz, on attribution, 74“75 Impression(s)
K
Heinrich, Ingo, 258“259 on others, awareness of, 56“57
Help of others on us, 69“71 Kennedy, John F., assassination of, 259
increasing the chance of receiving, 426 accuracy of, 69 Kin altruism, 409
receiving, reaction to, 441“444 constructing, 84“87 King, Martin Luther, Jr.
seeking, 439“441 ¬rst impressions in, 84“85 murder of, 259
decision model for, 439“440 heuristics in, 88“90 Rosa Parks and, 269
decision on, factors in¬‚uencing, schemas in, 85“87 Knowledge, organizing, 37“38
440“441 formation of, con¬dence and, 70 Kohler effect, 291
Helping behavior Impression management, 53“54 Kohler motivation gain, 291
altruistic, 401“444. See also Altruism self-esteem and, 53 Koresh, David, 189, 215“217
biological explanation of, 408“410 self-monitoring and, 53“54 Ku Klux Klan, deindividuation and, 295
egoism and, 404“406 Incompetence, happiness and, 94“95
L
in emergencies, 410“426 Incremental theories, of implicit stereotypes, 111
empathy-altruism hypothesis of, 404 Independence, paths to, 237“238 Laboratory research, 16“17
¬ve-stage decision model of, 410“426 Independent variable, 12 Language, in maintaining in-group bias,
applied to long-term helping, Individual characteristics, in social behavior, 5 128“132
437“439 Individual self, 35“37 Latitude of acceptance in social judgment
long-term, 437“439 Inequity, perceived, aggression and, 372 theory, 197
mood and, 419“420 Information, group use of, 298“300 Latitude of noncommitment in social judgment
in nonemergencies, 426“437 Informational social in¬‚uence, 233“234 theory, 197
race and, 424“425 Information-processing strategies for self- Latitude of rejection in social judgment theory,
recipient of, 426 serving bias, 50 197
rewards and costs of, 418“419 Informed consent, 22 Law of primacy, 194
sexual orientation and, 425“426 In-group bias, 125“128 Leadership style, group decision making and,
Heritability factor, in attitude formation, biological perspective on, 127“128 300“302
169“170 language in maintaining, 128“132 Learning, observational
Heterosexism, 146“147 Inhibition, social, 286 aggression and, 374“375
Heuristic and systematic information-processing Injustice, perceived, aggression and, 372 in attitude formation, 166“167
model, 208 Inoculation theory, 195 Legitimacy, psychology of, 301
Instrumental aggression, 359 Leopold, Nathan, Jr., 185“186, 187, 226
Subject Index I-15

Lewin, Kurt, social behavior model of, 3“5 Metacognition, 90 Normative altruism, 429
expanding, 5“7 Michelangelo phenomenon, 343 Normative social in¬‚uence, 233“234
Life cycle, friendships over, 349“350 Milgram, Stanley Normocentric motivation, 429
Likert scale, 161 obedience experiments of, 259“261
O
Limerence, 323 obedience studies of
Lincoln, Abraham, 118 authority ¬gure presence and legitimacy Obedience, 254“269
Lithuanian disobedience, 271 in, 263 administrative, 266
Loa¬ng, social, group participation and, 290 cognitive narrowing in, 263 aggression or, 265
Loeb, Richard, 185“186, 187, 226 con¬‚icting messages in, 263“264 con¬‚icting messages about, 263“264
Loneliness, 318“320 critiques of, 267“269 culture and, 266
Lost-letter technique, in attitude assessment, ¬ndings of, reevaluating, 267 de¬nition of, 255
162“163 group effects in, 264 destructive, 255, 256“259
Love participantʼs perspective on, 259“260 gender and, 264“265
close relationships and, 320“324 power of situation in, 263 Milgramʼs experiments on, 259“261
consummate, 323 predicted behavior in, 260“261 situation and, 266
in lab, 347“348 proximity of victim in, 261“263 time and, 266
secret, 324 results of, 263“264 See also Disobedience
triangular theory of, 320“322 situational determinants in, 261“264 Obesity, stereotypes about, 333“335
types of, 322“324 Mindguards, self-appointed, emergence of, Observational learning
unrequited, 323“324 groupthink and, 309 aggression and, 374“375
Low-ball technique, of compliance, 253“254 Minority in¬‚uence, in conformity, 243“247 in attitude formation, 166
Misattributions, 80“81 Opdyke, Irene Gut, 401“403, 444
M Mood Operant conditioning, in attitude formation,
helping and, 419
Majority 165“166
processing of message and, 201“203
minority in¬‚uence on, 244“245 Optimism, cognitive, happiness and, 90“92
Morgan Stanley Dean Witter and Company, 1
size of, conformity and, 240“241 Ostracism, social, 293“295
Mormons, prejudice and, 103“104
Majority and minority in¬‚uence, in conformity, Ought self, 46
Motivation, normocentric, 429
244“245 Out-group homogeneity bias, 132“134
Motivational strategy for self-serving bias,
Majority rule, 305“306 Out-groups, personalizing members of, in
49“50
Malvo, Lee Boyd, 357“358, 393“394 reducing prejudice, 146
Muhammad, John Allen, 357“358, 393“394
Marriages, kinds of, 347“348
P
Multiple audience model, 197“199
Mass media, in attitude formation, 167“169
My Lai massacre, 257
Matching principle, in interpersonal attraction, Paranoid social cognition, 95
329 Parenting
N
Mate aggressive, 377“379
how to attract, 336“338 Naïve realism, attitudes and, 179“180 in reducing aggression, 391“393
selection of, 335“336 Nazis Parks, Rosa, 269
McAuliffe, Christa, 281“282 obedience and, 270 Participative leaders, 300
Media, mass, in attitude formation, 167“169 propaganda and, 221, 224“225 Passion, love and, 320
Memorial Bridge (Carroll), 30 righteous rescuers and, 429“430 Perceived behavioral control, behavioral
Memories in self-concept, 32“33 role strain and, 269“270 intention and, 174
Merchant of Venice, play, 131 Need Perceptionʼ
Mere exposure, in attitude formation, for af¬liation, 317 distortion of, conformity and, 237
164“165 for intimacy, 317 social, 61“96. See also Social perception
Mere exposure effect, 327 Negative correlation, 16 de¬nition of, 5
Mesomorphs, 333 Neglect, child, aggression and, 380 Perceptual contrast hypothesis, of foot-in-the-
Message(s) Networks door effect, 249“250
anti-smoking campaign, 192 and groups, attitude formation and, Performance
con¬‚icting, about obedience, 263“264 170“171 audience effects on, 286“288
discrepancy of, from audience views, social, attitude formation and, 172 group participation and, 288“292
196“197 Noncommitment, latitude of, in social enhanced performance and, 289
effectiveness of, 192“194 judgment theory, 197 free rides and, 290
elaboration of, attitude accessibility and, Nonrational actor, in attitude-behavior social loa¬ng and, 290
205“206 relationship, 177“178 Peripheral route processing, in message
¬tting of, to audience, 195 resolving rational actor with, 179 elaboration, 200“201
inoculating audience against, 195“196 Norm(s) mood and, 201“203
one-sided versus two-sided, 195 de¬nition of, 234 Personal attributes, self-concept and, 31“32
processing of group, 283 Personal experience, direct, in attitude
mood and, 201“203 of reciprocity, 254 formation, 165
personal relevance and, 204“205 social Personality
timing of, 194 changing, 122“123 altruistic, 429
vivid versus nonvivid, persuasiveness of, as key to conformity, 234“235 authoritarian, 114“116
206“207 reducing expression of prejudice becoming rescuer and, 431
through, 146“147 prejudice and, 114“117
subjective, behavioral intention and, 174
Subject Index
I-16

Personality psychology, aggressiveness and, 8“9 Catholic Church and, 221 friendships as, 348“350
Person attribution, 76 characteristics of, 220“221 Internet and, 327“329
Persuasion, 185“226 Communists and, 221 kinds of, 347“348
cognitive approach to, 199“208. See also de¬nition of, 220 love and, 320“324
Cognitive approach, to persuasion Hitlerʼs rise to power and, 223“224 over time, 343
cognitive dissonance theory of, 209“217 in Nazi Germany, 221, 224“225 responses of, to con¬‚ict, 345“347
elaboration likelihood model of, techniques of, 222“223 roots of, 317
199“201 Prosocial behavior, in reducing aggression, 392 sculpting, 343“345
group polarization from, 306“307 Protection/motivation explanation of fear, 193 working model of, 324“325
heuristic model of, 208 Psychological ¬eld, in Lewinʼs model of social inequity in, 442
of masses, 220“225 behavior, 3“4 Relative deprivation theory, 143
through propaganda, 220“225 Psychological reactance, 219“220 Relevance, personal, message processing and,
of multiple audiences, 197“199 independence and, 237“238 204“205
vividness of message and, 206“207 Psychology Religion, in¬‚uence on self, 34“35
Yale model of, 186“197. See also Yale evolutionary, beauty and, 335 Reno, Janet, credibility and, 189
communication model of legitimacy, 301 Representativeness heuristic, 89“90
Phrasing, attitude survey bias and, 162 social. See Social psychology Representative sample, 12
Physical attack, prejudice as, 135 social psychology and, 7“9 for attitude survey, 161“162
Physical attractiveness Punishment, by group, 293“295 Rescorla, Rick, 1“2, 22, 24
dimensions of, 331“333 Punitive ostracism, 294 Rescuer
in interpersonal attraction, 330“338 becoming
Q
Physical proximity effect, 327“329 personality factors in, 431“432
Physiology, of aggression, 364“369 situational factors in, 430“431
Question format, attitude survey bias and, 162
Physique, attractiveness bias and, 333“335 gender and, 434
R
Planned behavior, theory of, 174“175 righteous, 429“430
Pluralistic ignorance, bystander effect and, 414 ¬ve-stage decision model applied to,
Race, helping behavior and, 424“425
Polarization, group, 306“307 437“439
Racism
Positive correlation, 16 Research, social psychological, 9“22, 23
aversive, 121
Positive illusions, 91 correlational, 15“16
changing social norms and, 122“123
Postdecision dissonance, 211“213 ethics and, 21“22, 23
de¬nition of, 105
Prejudice, 103“149 exceptions and, 20“21
modern, 120“122
against African Americans, 118“120 experimental, 10“14. See also
symbolic, 121
authoritarianism and, 114“116 Experimental research
in U.S. Army, disarming, 148“149
cognitive roots of, 123“135 ¬eld, 17“18
See also Discrimination; Prejudice;
color, historical view of, 113“114 hindsight bias in, 20
Stereotype(s)
coping with, 141“144 laboratory, 17
Random assignment, 12
de¬nition of, 104 lessons from, 20“21
Rape, myths about, 389“390
dynamics of, 104“111 settings for, 16“18
Rating scale, 162
everyday, 135 theory in, 18“19
Rationalization

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