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. 115
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gender and, 117“118 Responsibility, diffusion of, bystander effect
groupthink and, 308
against Jews, 131“132 and, 414
self-af¬rmation theory and, 218“219
jokes based on, 136 Revere, Paul, 221“222
Reactance, psychological, 219“220
against Mormons, 103“104 Reverse incentive effect, in dissonance theory,
independence and, 237“238
persistence and recurrence of, 112“114 210
Reagan, Ronald, trustworthiness and, 188
personality and, 114“117 Righteous rescuers, 429“430
Rebound effect, 67
reducing, 144“149 ¬ve-stage decision model applied to,
Recency effect, of message, 194
contact between groups in, 144“146 437“439
Reciprocal altruism, 409
personalizing out-group members in, Role strain, disobedience and, 269“270
Reciprocity, norm of, 254
146 Rugemer, Eduard, 401“403
Reed, Leroy, 231“232
reducing expression of, through social Reinforcement, vicarious, observational learning
S
norms, 146“147 and, 375
social roots of, 118“123 Sanctioned aggression, 359
Rejection, latitude of, in social judgment theory,
stereotypes and, 106“111 Scapegoating, 115
197
target of, consequences of being, 135“141 Schema(s)
Relational devaluation, 320
ways to express, 135 aggressive, 376
Relational model, of legitimacy, 301
See also Discrimination; Racism; Sexism; behavior and, 85“87
Relationships
Stereotype(s) de¬nition of, 38, 85
close, 315“350
Primacy effect origins of, 85“86
attachment styles and, 324“326
in impression-formation process, 85 Schindlerʼs List, ¬lm, 146
communal, 342“343
of message, 194 Scienti¬c method, de¬nition of, 10
development of, 339“340
Process loss, group size and, 304 Secret love, 324
dissolution of, predicting, 347“348
Propaganda, 220“225 Self
dynamics of, 338“350
aims of, 221“222 actual, 46
evaluating, 340“343
American Revolution and, 221“222 collective, 35“36
formation of, 324“326
Subject Index I-17

cultural in¬‚uences on, 36“37 Sexism Social ostracism, 293“294
enhancing, 49“51 in childrenʼs books, attitude formation and, Social penetration theory, 339
group in¬‚uences on, 35“36 167“168 Social perception, 61“96
ideal, 46 de¬nition of, 105. See also Discrimination; automaticity in, 63“64
individual, 35“36 Prejudice; Stereotype(s) de¬nition of, 5
ought, 46 Sexuality, self-schemas and, 38“40 Social psychology
religious in¬‚uence on, 34“35 Sexual orientation, helping behavior and, de¬nition of, 2
social, 29“57. See also Social self 425“426 ¬elds related to, 7“9
Self-af¬rmation theory, rationalization and, Sexual violence, viewing, impact on aggression, research in, 9“22, 23. See also Research,
218“219 389“390 social psychological
Self-awareness, 51“52 Shepard, Matthew Wayne, murder of, 359 understanding social behavior and, 3“7
self-knowledge and, 52 Similarity, interpersonal attraction and, Social self, 29“67
Self-categorization theory, discrimination and, 329“330 Social situation, 4
126“127 Single-process model in majority and minority Social standing, uncertainty about, paranoid
Self-censorship, groupthink and, 309 in¬‚uence, 246“247 social cognition and, 95
Self-concept, 30“40 Sinister attribution error, 95 Social world, our view of, 90“95
de¬nition of, 30 Situational attribution, 76 Sociobiology, aggression and, 362“363
in¬‚uence of culture on, 35“37 Situational factors, in becoming rescuer, Sociology, social psychology and, 8
memories and, 32“33 430“431 Stein, Gertrude, 315“316, 350
personal attributes and, 31“32 Sleeper effect, 189“191 Stereotype(s)
Self-consistency, maintaining, 50“51 Smith, Benjamin, 115 con¬rmation bias and, 132
Self-control, cost and ironic effects of, 48“49 Smoking, and behavior change, 217“219 de¬nition of, 106
Self-defense, as sanctioned aggression, 359 Social anxiety, 319“320 of enemy, groupthink and, 309
Self-disclosure, in relationship development, 340 Social behavior explicit, 108“110
Self-esteem, 40“46 Lewinʼs model of, 3“5 illusory correlations and, 128“131
cultural in¬‚uences on, 45 expanding, 5“7 implicit, 108“110
de¬nition of, 40 understanding, 1“24 persistence and recurrence of, 112“114
explicit, 46 model for, 3“5 prejudice and, 104“106
high, bene¬ts of, 45“46 social psychology and, 3“7 of prejudiced and nonprejudiced
implicit, 46 Social cognition individuals, 134“135
impression management and, 53 de¬nition of, 5 social identity theory and, 126
internal in¬‚uences on, 41“46 paranoid, 95 threat based on, 136“140
maintaining, in interactions with others, Social comparison See also Discrimination; Prejudice
42“43 group polarization from, 306“307 Stigma, self-esteem and, 44
receiving help and, 442“444 need for, groups satisfying, 285 Stranger anxiety, 8
self-regulation and, 46“48 Social comparison process, 236 Subjective norms, behavioral intention and, 174
stigma and, 44 in self-knowledge, 30“31 Superordinate goal, 145
Self-focus, 51“52 Social compensation, in groups, 290“292 Symbolic aggression, 359
Self-ful¬lling prophecy, 86 Social exchange theory, 340“341 Symbolic racism, 121
Self-handicapping, 54“55 Social facilitation, 286, 288
T
in academics, 55“56 Social group, identi¬cation with, 292“293
Self-identity Social identity theory, stereotypes and, 126 Tarbell, Ida, 155“156, 159, 165, 181
groups and, 292“296 Social impact theory, 246“247 Television
identi¬cation with social group and, Social in¬‚uence(s) in attitude formation, 167“169
292“293 conformity and, 238“239 in teaching aggression, 385“386
Self-identity theory, 292“293 informational, 233“234 Terminal values, 159
Self-knowledge normative, 233“234 Terrorist attack, World Trade Center, 1“2
self-awareness and, 52 on self-knowledge, 35“37 Testosterone, aggression and, 365“366
social in¬‚uences on, 35“37 Social information-processing view of Textbooks, in attitude formation, 167“168
sources of, 30“31 aggression, 392 Theory
Self-monitoring, impression management and, Social inhibition, 286 de¬nition of, 18
53“54 Social-interactional model, of aggression, of planned behavior, 174“175
Self-other oneness hypothesis, 407“408 377“379 research process and, 18
Self-perception theory, 217 Social networks, attitude formation and, 172 in social psychological research, 18“19
Self-presentation(s) Socialization, of aggression, 374“375 Thinking
managing, 53“56 Social judgment theory, 197 about thinking, 90“95
manipulative strategies and, 54 Social learning explanation, of aggression, counterfactual, 89
Self-regulation, self-esteem and, 46“48 373“388 Threat, stereotype-based, 136“140
Self-schema, 38“40 Social learning theory, aggression and, Tiananmen Square incident, 271
de¬nition of, 38 374“375 Toklas, Alice, 315“316, 350
sexuality and, 38“40 Social loa¬ng, group participation and, 290 Transactional leaders, 301
Self-serving cognitions, 49“51 Social norms Transactive memory systems, of groups, 296
Self-veri¬cation, 50 changing, 122“123 Transformative leaders, 301
September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks of, reducing expression of prejudice through, Triangular theory, of love, 320“322
1“2, 43 146“147 True partner effect, 241
Subject Index
I-18

W
Trustworthiness, of communicator, 188 Variable(s)
Twelve Angry Men, ¬lm, 243, 246 confounding, 12“13
Wake Island, ¬lm, 229
Two-process model, in majority and minority de¬nition of, 13
War, as sanctioned aggression, 359
in¬‚uence, 245“246 in experimental research
Watergate, 259
dependent, 11
Wording, attitude survey bias and, 162
U independent, 11
Working model, of close relationships,
manipulating, 10“11
Ultimate attribution error, 133 324“325
extraneous
Unanimity, illusion of, groupthink and, 309 World Trade Center, attacks on, 1“2, 43
controlling, 12“13
Unanimity rule, 305“306
X
de¬nition of, 12
Unobtrusive measures, in attitude assessment,
Vicarious reinforcement, observational learning
162“163
Xenophobia, 127
and, 375
Unrequited love, 323“324
Vietnam War, 29“30 Y
V Vincennes incident, 61“62, 88, 96
Yale communication model, 186“197
Violence
Validating couple, 348
audience in, 192“197
culture and, 381“384
Value(s)
communicator in, 187“192
group, 295“296
attitudes as expression of, 159“160
message in, 192“197
sexual, viewing of, impact on aggression,
de¬nition of, 159
social judgment theory and, 197
389“390
instrumental, 159
on television
terminal, 159
aggression and, 385“386
in attitude formation, 167
See also Aggression
Volatile couple, 348

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. 115
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