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De¬ning Obedience 255 Chapter Review 310
Destructive Obedience and the Social Psychology
9 Interpersonal Attraction and Close
of Evil 256
Relationships 315
Milgram™s Experiments on Obedience 259
The Roots of Interpersonal Attraction and Close
The Role of Gender in Obedience 264
Relationships 317
Obedience or Aggression? 265
Af¬liation and Intimacy 317
Obedience across Culture, Situation, and Time 266
Loneliness and Social Anxiety 318
Reevaluating Milgram™s Findings 267
Loneliness 318
Critiques of Milgram™s Research 267
Social Anxiety 319
Contents
x

Men Prone to Sexual Aggression: Psychological
Love and Close Relationships 320
Characteristics 390
Love™s Triangle 320
Reducing Aggression 391
Types of Love 322
Reducing Aggression in the Family 391
The Formation of Intimate Relationships 324
Reducing Aggression with Cognitive Intervention
Determinants of Interpersonal Attraction 327
and Therapy 392
Physical Proximity: Being in the Right Place 327
The Beltway Sniper Case Revisited 393
Similarity 329
Physical Attractiveness 330 Chapter Review 394
Dynamics of Close Relationships 338
11 Prosocial Behavior and Altruism 401
Relationship Development 339
Why Do People Help? 403
Evaluating Relationships 340
Empathy: Helping in Order to Relieve Another™s
Exchange Theories 340
Suffering 403
Love over Time 343
Empathy and Egoism: Two Paths to Helping 404
Sculpting a Relationship 343
Biological Explanations: Helping in Order to Preserve
Responses to Con¬‚ict 345 Our Own Genes 408
Love in the Lab 347 Helping in Emergencies: A Five-Stage Decision
Friendships 348 Model 410
Gertrude and Alice Revisited 350 Stage 1: Noticing the Situation 411
Chapter Review 350 Stage 2: Labeling the Situation as an Emergency 412
Stage 3: Assuming Responsibility to Help: The Bystander
10 Interpersonal Aggression 357
Effect 413
What Is Aggression? 358 Stage 4: Deciding How to Help 418
Levels and Types of Aggression 358 Stage 5: Implementing the Decision to Help 418
Gender Differences in Aggression 360
Increasing the Chances of Receiving Help 426
Explanations for Aggression 361
Courageous Resistance and Heroism 426
Biological Explanations for Aggression 361
Explaining Courageous Resistance and Heroism:
Ethology 362 The Role of Personality 428
Sociobiology 362 Righteous Rescuers in Nazi-Occupied Europe 429
Genetics and Aggression 363 A Synthesis: Situational and Personality Factors in
The Physiology of Aggression 364 Altruism 434
Alcohol and Aggression 366 Applying the Five-Stage Decision Model to Long-Term
Physiology and Aggression: Summing Up 369 Helping 437
Noticing the Situation 437
The Frustration-Aggression Link 369
Labeling the Situation as an Emergency 438
Components of the Frustration-Aggression
Sequence 370 Assuming Responsibility to Help 438
Factors Mediating the Frustration“Aggression Link 371 Deciding How to Help 438
The Social Learning Explanation for Aggression 373 Implementing the Decision to Help 438
The Socialization of Aggression 374 Altruistic Behavior from the Perspective of the
Aggressive Scripts: Why and How They Develop 376 Recipient 439
The Role of the Family in Developing Aggressive Seeking Help from Others 439
Behaviors 377 Reacting to Help When It Is Given 441
Child Abuse and Neglect 380 Irene Opdyke Revisited 444
Family Disruption 380
Chapter Review 444
The Role of Culture in Violent Behavior 381
Glossary G-1
The Role of Television in Teaching Aggression 385
Exposure to Violent Video Games 387
References R-1
Viewing Sexual Violence: The Impact on
Name Index I-1
Aggression 388
The Impact of Sexually Violent Material on
Subject Index I-11
Attitudes 389
When we set out to write the ¬rst edition of Social Psychology, our goal was to
provide teachers and students with a book that covered the important research
and theoretical areas in social psychology in a concise fashion. In the second
edition, we strayed a bit from that original goal but succeeded in writing a solid,
research-based text for the introductory social psychology course. In this third
edition, we have returned to our original goal and have streamlined the book,
while maintaining its scienti¬c integrity.
Social psychology has become a diverse ¬eld, and any attempt to present a
totally comprehensive overview of all of its content area would be dif¬cult to
execute in a single volume or course. Instead, we take the approach of presenting
students with information concerning three questions:
1. What is social psychology?
2. What do we know about social psychological phenomena?
3. How do we know what we know about social psychological phenomena?
This third edition of Social Psychology maintains the basic structure of the
second edition: Eleven chapters cover the core topics in social psychology. By
staying with the core organization and length, we believe that the entire book can
be covered in one semester or quarter. Each chapter has been updated to include
citations to new research and, where appropriate, new topics have been added.
The most obvious change in the third edition is the new publication format.
The ¬rst and second editions were both “traditional” textbooks published the
old-fashioned way. This third edition, however, is being published by an online
publisher and is free to students. Yet, it retains the scienti¬c, academic, and
pedagogical integrity of the second edition.
Social psychology is important, interesting, relevant to the current world,
and exciting. This is truly the golden age of social psychology, with many bright,
energetic people doing so much interesting work. We hope to communicate
to this generation of social psychology students the excitement that we felt as
budding social psychologists when we ¬rst learned about Milgramʼs obedience
research or Darley and Latan©ʼs bystander intervention research. Intrigued by the
results of such studies, we began to wonder how they could be applied to real-life
situations that confront each of us every day. In this edition, we communicate the
excitement of the ¬eld so that students new to the area will be as intrigued with
social psychological research and theory as we are.
Most social psychology texts approach the ¬eld from the perspective of
research and theory, using examples from everyday life as illustrations of social
psychological phenomena. This approach often leaves students without a full
appreciation of the applications of social psychology. By applications, we mean
xi
Preface
xii

not only the usual applied social psychology topics that are interesting in their own right,
but also the theory and research of social psychology that can be used to understand the
complexities of cultural, historical, and current events. Social psychology can help us
understand how we, as individuals, ¬t in with the wider social environment. Students
will come away from this text with a sense that they are truly social creatures, subject
to the in¬‚uence of the social and physical environment.


Changes to the Third Edition
As noted earlier, the most drastic third-edition change is the method of publication and
delivery. The chapters are now in PDF format, and as was the case in the second edition,
are in simple black-and-white. However, we have retained the second editionʼs chapter
organization, order, and structure. So instructors moving to the third edition from the
second edition should ¬nd the transition seamless.
Some second-edition elements have been eliminated. For example, there are no
photographs in the third edition. While photos may add to the appeal of the book, they
have little educational value and signi¬cantly raise the bookʼs cost. Also, the lists of
suggested readings that ended each chapter in the second edition have been dropped. We
felt that these were of little value to most students and that any students wishing to do
follow-up reading would be guided by the citations/references in the chapters themselves.
The Internet activities that were at the end of each chapter in the second edition have
been removed from the book as well. These are now found in the student study guide
that accompanies the third edition. Key pedagogical elements from the second edition,
such as the chapter-opening vignettes, opening questions, running glossary, and focused
chapter summaries, have been retained.
Some major changes to the existing chapters include the following:
Chapter 3, “Social Perception: Understanding Other People”: The information
from the second edition on optimism and dealing with life events has been updated and
reorganized in a new section on positive psychology.
Chapter 4, “Prejudice and Discrimination”: The core content of this chapter on
prejudice has been retained. However, new material discusses how we must be careful
about de¬ning prejudice because popular and media concepts of the term differ from
a scienti¬c concept. Material has been added to the implicit stereotypes section on the
“shooter paradigm,” which is a way to measure the impact of subtle stereotypes on overt
behavior. We have also added material on how “thinking different” can attenuate the
impact of negative stereotypes. The section on personality correlates of prejudice has
been updated to include information on right-wing authoritarianism, social dominance
orientation, and the Big Five model. The section on stereotype threat has been updated
with new research on this topic. We have added new sections on collective threat and
on reducing prejudice, which addresses the impact of training on prejudice reduction.
Chapter 5, “Attitudes”: New sections have been added on naïve realism and agenda
setting. We have also included information on how exposure to violent video games relates
to attitudes toward violence, and how groups and social networks relate to attitudes.
Chapter 6, “Persuasion and Attitude Change”: A new section on the gender of the
communicator has been added to the communicator section of the Yale communication
model. The material on cognitive dissonance theory has been updated to include new
research on topics such as postdecisional dissonance. The section on alternatives to
cognitive dissonance theory has been expanded to include a subsection on the action-based
Preface xiii

model. The persuading the masses discussion now includes a more-focused discussion
of propaganda (its historical context, de¬nition, characteristics, aims, and techniques).
Chapter 7, “Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience”: A new section on the social
psychology of evil will help students understand this concept from a social psychological
perspective (versus a religious or philosophical perspective). The section on the banality
of evil has also been updated with new research.
Chapter 9, “Interpersonal Attraction and Close Relationships”: The section on
loneliness has been updated to include research on the cultural aspects and health
implications of loneliness. The material on Internet relationships has been expanded
to include new topics and research. New information on forgiveness has been added to
the section on responses to con¬‚ict in a relationship.
Chapter 10, “Interpersonal Aggression”: A new chapter-opening vignette focuses
on the “Beltway Snipers.” The section on de¬ning aggression has been expanded to
include de¬nitions of indirect aggression, direct aggression, and relational aggression.
The discussions of gender and aggression, culture and aggression, and the effects of
televised aggression have been updated with new research. New sections look at the
relationship between genetics and aggression, the heat effect (including a discussion of
the general affective aggression model), and the impact of violent video games.
Chapter 11, “Prosocial Behavior and Altruism”: A new chapter-opening vignette
tells the story of Irene Gut Odyke, a young woman who helped rescue Jews from the
Nazis. The section on assuming responsibility has been updated to include information on
social category relationships and new research on the limits of the bystander effect. New
discussions look at the role of gratitude in helping behavior, the courageous resistance
and heroism that is linked to the research on those who rescued Jews from the Nazis,
and the relationship between gender and rescue.


Ancillaries
An extensive, computerized test bank of examination questions is available. The
questions in the test bank have been written by the authors and not by someone paid
a small amount of money per question. We hope that these author-prepared questions
will be an asset to the instructor.
As was the case with the second edition, the hard-copy student study guide has
been replaced with a free online study guide. Students can download materials for each
chapter, print them out, and use them as they wish. The online study guide features
chapter outlines, key questions, practice questions, and Internet activities.


Acknowledgments
A project of this scope requires much hard work and the support of many people. First and
foremost, we would like to thank our wives Ricky Karen Bordens and Kay F. Schaffer,
who provided much-needed love and support while we toiled on this book.
We would also like to thank the editor at Freeload Press, Ed Laube; Victoria Putman
of Putman Productions, LLC; and Daphne Loecke of Laurel Arts Design Studio.
Understanding
Social Behavior
Few people are capable of expressing with equanimity
opinions which differ from the prejudices
of their social environment. Most people are
even incapable of forming such opinions.
”Albert Einstein



The events of September 11, 2001, conjure up many memories and images Key Questions
of what occurred on that fateful day. Most of us can vividly remember where As you read this chapter,
we were and what we were doing when we ¬rst heard of the attacks on the ¬nd the answers to the
following questions:
World Trade Center and the Pentagon. We can also recall the images of
jet airliners slamming into buildings in great orange ¬reballs, bringing with
1. What is social psychology?
them destruction and death. We can see in our mind™s eye the poor souls
2. How do social psychologists
who chose to leap to their deaths rather than burn alive in the World Trade
explain social behavior?
Center towers. We can still experience the horror as those two majestic
3. How does social psychology
towers collapsed and crumbled into cinders, taking around 2,700 people
relate to other disciplines that
to their deaths.
study social behavior?
On September 11, 2001, we witnessed the worst that human behavior
4. How do social psychologists
can offer us: 19 young men deliberately ¬‚ying fuel-laden jetliners into
approach the problem of
buildings where unsuspecting people were going about their daily lives.
explaining social behavior?
However, on that day we also witnessed some of the best that human
5. What is experimental
behavior can offer. Many people”police, ¬re¬ghters, and civilians”put
research, and how is it used?
their lives on the line to save others. One such person was Rick Rescorla,
6. What is correlational
who is credited with saving around 3,000 lives that day. Who was Rick

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