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factors can help a person overcome the bystander effect. Esteem-oriented
individuals (who are motivated internally) are more likely to help than safety-
oriented individuals (who are externally motivated) when a passive bystander is
present. Additionally, personality and cost of help might interact. For low-cost
behaviors, we would expect personality factors to be less important than for
high-cost behaviors.
13. How does long-term helping relate to models of emergency helping?
With slight modi¬cation, Latan© and Darleyʼs ¬ve-stage model applies to
long-term helping. Noticing, labeling, accepting responsibility, deciding how
to help, and implementing the decision to help are all relevant to acts of long-
term help. Additionally, at the assuming responsibility stage, the norm of social
responsibility may have been activated. This norm suggests that we should help
those in need without regard to reward.
14. What factors in¬‚uence a personʼs likelihood of seeking and receiving help?
Seeking help from others is a double-edged sword: The person in need is more
likely to receive help but also incurs a cost. Helping also involves costs for the
helper. A person in need of help weighs these costs when deciding whether to
ask for help, progressing through a multistage process. A person is more likely
to seek help when his or her needs are low, and to seek help from a friend,
especially if the cost to the helper is high. A person is less likely to seek help
with something easy than with something hard.
15. What reactions do people show to receiving help?
Receiving help is also a double-edged sword. The help relieves the situation but
leads to negative side effects, including feelings of guilt, lowered self-esteem,
and indebtedness to the helper. Generally, there are four negative reactions to
receiving aid: the creation of inequity between the helper and the recipient,
psychological reactance, negative attributions about the helper, and threats to
oneʼs self-esteem. There is considerable support for the threat to self-esteem
model of reactions to receiving help. How much a personʼs self-esteem is
threatened depends on several factors, including the type of task and the source
of the help. Males and females differ in their responses to receiving help.
Females react more negatively to receiving help but are more satis¬ed than
males with the help they receive.
Glossary
A belief perseverence The tendency for
attitude survey A self-report method
initial impressions to persist despite
of measuring attitudes that involves a
accommodation process Interacting
later con¬‚icting information, accounting for
researcherʼs mailing a questionnaire to a
in such a way that, despite con¬‚ict, a
much of the power of ¬rst impressions.
potential respondent, conducting a face-
relationship is maintained and enhanced.
to-face interview, or asking a series of
black-sheep effect The phenomenon in
action-based model A model of questions on the telephone.
which an attractive in-group member is
cognitive dissonancy stating that cognitive
rated more highly than an attractive member
attribution The process of assigning
discrepancy generates dissonance
of an out-group, and an unattractive in-
causes of behavior, both your own and that
motivation because the cognitive
group member is perceived more negatively
of others.
discrepancy has the potential to interfere
than an unattractive out-group member.
with effective uncon¬‚icted action. authoritarian personality A personality
bystander effect The social phenomenon
dimension characterized by submissive
actor-observer bias An attribution bias
that helping behavior is less likely to
feelings toward authority, rigid and
showing that we prefer external attributions
occur as the number of witnesses to an
unchangeable beliefs, and a tendency
for our own behavior, especially if
emergency increases.
toward prejudicial attitudes.
outcomes are negative, whereas observers
tend to make internal attributions for the authoritarianism A personality
C
same behavior performed by others. characteristic that relates to a personʼs
central route processing In the elaboration
unquestioned acceptance of and respect for
agenda setting The phenomenon
likelihood model (ELM), information
authority.
involving the news media determining
may be processed by effortful, controlled
which stories are emphasized in the news. autobiographical memory Memory for mechanisms involving attention to and
information relating to the self that plays a understanding and careful processing of the
agentic state In the agentic state, an
powerful role in recall of events. content of a persuasive message.
individual becomes focused on the source
of authority, tuning in to the instructions automatic processing The idea that classical conditioning A form of learning
issued. because of our limited information that occurs when a stimulus comes to
processing capacity we construct social summon a response that it previously did
aggression Any behavior intended to
impressions without much thought or not evoke to form an attitude.
in¬‚ict either psychological or physical
effort, especially when we lack the
harm on another organism or object.
cognitive dissonance theory A theory
motivation for careful assessment or when
of attitude change proposing that if
aggressive script An internalized our initial impressions are con¬rmed. See
inconsistency exists among our attitudes, or
representation of an event that leads to also controlled processing.
between our attitudes and our behavior, we
increased aggression and the tendency to
autonomous altruism Sel¬‚ess altruism experience an unpleasant state of arousal
interpret social interactions aggressively.
that society does not support or might even called cognitive dissonance, which we will
altruism Helping behavior motivated discourage. be motivated to reduce or eliminate.
purely by the desire to relieve a victimʼs
availability heuristic A shortcut used to cognitive miser The idea suggesting that
suffering and not the anticipation of
estimate the frequency or likelihood of an because humans have a limited capacity
reward.
event based on how quickly examples of it to understand information, we deal only
altruistic personality A cluster of come to mind. with small amounts of social information
personality traits that predisposes a person
and prefer the least effortful means of
aversive racist A person who believes he
to acts of altruism.
processing it.
or she is unprejudiced, but feels uneasy
applied research Research that has a and uncomfortable in the presence of cohesiveness The strength of the
principal aim to address a real-world someone from a different racial group. relationships that link members of a group
problem.
together and is essentially what keeps
B people in a group or causes them to stick
attitude A mental and neural state of
together.
readiness, organized through experience, basic research Research that has the
exerting a directive or dynamic in¬‚uence principal aim of empirically testing a collective self The part of our self-concept
on the individualʼs response to all objects theory or a model. that comes from our membership in groups.
and situations with which it is related.
behavioral con¬rmation A tendency collective threat The awareness that the
attitude structure The fact that attitudes for perceivers to behave as if their poor performance of a member of oneʼs
comprise a cognitive, affective, and expectations are correct and the targets group may be evaluated with a stereotype
behavioral component in their basic then to respond in ways that con¬rm the and may be generalized into a negative
structure. perceiversʼ beliefs. judgment of oneʼs entire group.
G-1
Glossary
G-2

communal relationship An interpersonal directive leader A leadership style
correspondent inference An inference
relationship in which individuals bene¬t involving a leader who gives less value
that occurs when we conclude that a
each other in response to each othersʼ to participation, emphasizes the need for
personʼs overt behavior is caused by
needs. agreement, and tends to prefer his or her own
or corresponds to the personʼs internal
solution.
characteristics or beliefs.
compliance Social in¬‚uence process
that involves modifying behavior after discrimination Overt behavior”often
counterfactual thinking The tendency to
accepting a direct request. negatively directed toward a particular group
create positive alternatives to a negative
and often tied to prejudicial attitudes”which
outcome that actually occurred, especially
con¬rmation bias A tendency to engage
involves behaving in different ways toward
when we can easily imagine a more
in a search strategy that con¬rms rather
members of different groups.
positive outcome.
than discon¬rms our hypothesis.
distinctiveness theory The theory
courageous resistance Sel¬‚ess behavior
conformity A social in¬‚uence process
suggesting that individuals think of
involving risk to a helper (and/or family)
that involves modifying behavior in
themselves in terms of those attributes or
that is sustained over time, is a product
response to real or imagined pressure from
dimensions that make them different”rather
of a deliberative process, and involves a
others rather than in response to a direct
than in terms of attributes they have in
moral calling.
request or order from another.
common with others.
covariation principle The rule that if
confounding variable An extraneous
distraction-con¬‚ict theory A theory
a response is present when a situation
variable in an experiment that varies
of social facilitation suggesting that the
(person, object, or event) is present and
systematically with the independent
presence of others is a source of distraction
absent when that same situation is absent,
variable, making it dif¬cult or impossible
that leads to con¬‚icts in attention between an
the situation is presumed to be the cause
to establish a causal connection between
audience and a task that affects performance.
of the response.
the independent and dependent variables.
door-in-the-face technique (DITF)
credibility The believability (expertise
consensus seeking A tendency in groups
A social in¬‚uence process in which a large
and trustworthiness) of the communicator
that leads members to be more concerned
request is made before a smaller request,
of a persuasive message.
with maintaining morale and gaining
resulting in more compliance to the smaller
unanimous agreement than with the quality culture of honor An evolved culture in
request than if the smaller request were
of the group decision. the southern and western United States in
made alone.
which violence is more widely accepted
consummate love Love that includes all
and practiced than in the northern and
E
three components: passion, intimacy, and
eastern United Stares, where no such
commitment. ego depletion The loss of self-energy that
culture exists.
occurs when a person has to contend with a
contact hypothesis A hypothesis that
dif¬cult cognitive or emotional situation.
D
contact between groups will reduce
hostility, which is most effective when egoism The idea that helping a person in
deindividuation A phenomenon that
members of different groups have equal need occurs to relieve personal distress.
occurs in large-group (crowd) situations in
status and a mutual goal. which individual identity is lost within the
egotistical bias The tendency to present
anonymity of the large group, perhaps
control group A group in an experiment yourself as responsible for success, whether
leading to a lowering of inhibitions
comprising participants who do not receive you are or not, and the tendency to believe
against negative behaviors.
the experimental treatment. these positive presentations.
dependent variable The measure the
controlled processing An effortful Eichmannʼs fallacy The belief that evil
researcher assesses to determine the
and careful processing of information deeds are done only by evil people.
in¬‚uence of the independent variable on
that occurs when we are motivated to
the participantsʼ behavior. elaboration likelihood model (ELM)
accurately assess information or if our
A cognitive model of persuasion
initial impressions or expectations are diffusion of responsibility An
suggesting that a targetʼs attention,
discon¬rmed. explanation for the bystander effect
involvement, distraction, motivation,
suggesting that each bystander assumes
correlation coef¬cient A statistical self-esteem, education,and intelligence all
another person will take responsibility
technique used to determine the direction in¬‚uence central and/or peripheral reception
to help.
and strength of a relationship between two to a persuasive attempt.
variables. direct aggression Overt forms of
emotional intelligence A personʼs ability
aggression, such as physical aggression
correlational research Research that to perceive, use, understand, and manage
(hitting, punching, kicking, etc.) and
measures two or more dependent variables emotions.
verbal aggression (name calling,
and looks for a relationship between them;
denigration, etc.). empathy The compassionate understanding
causal relationships among variables
of how a person in need feels.
cannot be established.
Glossary G-3

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