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F G
empathy-altruism hypothesis
An explanation suggesting that the arousal factorial experiment An experimental group An aggregate of individuals who
of empathy leads to altruistic acts. interact with and in¬‚uence one another.
design in which two or more independent
variables are manipulated, allowing for
empathy-punishment hypothesis group norms Expectations concerning
the establishment of a causal connection
A hypothesis suggesting that helping occurs the kinds of behaviors required of group
between the independent and dependent
because individuals are motivated to avoid members.
variables.
the guilt or shame brought about by failure
group polarization The tendency for
to help. false consensus bias The tendency to
individual, prediscussion opinion to
believe that our own feelings and behavior
equity theory An interpersonal become more extreme following group
are shared by everyone else.
relationship theory suggesting that we discussion.
strive to maximize fairness in our social ¬eld experiment A research setting in
groupthink A group-process phenomenon
relationships with others; when inequity which the researcher manipulates one or
that may lead to faulty decision making
is perceived, we are motivated to change more independent variables and measures
by highly cohesive group members more
a relationship. behavior in the participantʼs natural
concerned with reaching consensus than
environment.
ethology A theoretical perspective that with carefully considering alternative
views behavior within the context of courses of action.
¬eld study A descriptive research strategy
survival and emphasizes the role of instincts in which the researcher makes unobtrusive
and genetic forces.
H
observations of the participants without
making direct contact or interfering in
evaluation apprehension An explanation heat effect The observation that
any way.
for social facilitation suggesting that the aggression is more likely when people are
presence of others will cause arousal hot than when they are cool.
¬eld survey A descriptive research
only when they can reward or punish the strategy in which the researcher directly helping behavior Helping partially
performer. approaches participants and asks them motivated by personal gain rather than
questions.
everyday prejudice Prejudice that relieving the suffering of a victim.
comprises recurrent and familiar events ¬‚exible correction model (FCM) heritability An indicator of the degree to
considered to be commonplace. A model stating that individuals using which genetics accounts for differences
central route processing are in¬‚uenced
experimental group A group comprising among people for any given behavior or
by biasing variables, because they are not
participants who receive the experimental characteristic.
aware of the potential biasing conditions.
treatment in an experiment.
heroism Helping that involves signi¬cant
foot-in-the-door technique (FITD)
experimental research Research involving risk above what is normally expected and
A social in¬‚uence process in which a small
manipulating a variable suspected of serves some socially valued goal.
request is made before a larger request,
in¬‚uencing behavior to see how that change
heuristic and systematic information-
resulting in more compliance to the larger
affects behavior; results show causal
processing model (HSM) A cognitive
request than if the larger request were
relationships among variables.
model of persuasion suggesting that of the
made alone.
expertise A component of communicator two routes to persuasion, systematic and
four horsemen of the apocalypse Four
credibility that refers to the communicatorʼs heuristic, people choose to use heuristics or
factors identi¬ed as important in
credentials and stems from the individualʼs peripheral cues more often.
relationship dissolution: complaining-
training and knowledge.
heuristics Handy rules of thumb that serve
criticizing, contempt, defensiveness,
explicit attitude An attitude that operates as shortcuts to organizing and perceiving
and withdrawal from social interaction
on a conscious level via controlled social reality.
(stonewalling).
processing.
hindsight bias Also known as the
free riders Group members who do not
explicit self-esteem Self-esteem that arises do their share of the work in a group. “I-knew-it-all--along” phenomenon;
primarily from the interaction with people in shows that with the bene¬t of hindsight,
frustration-aggression hypothesis
our everyday life. everything looks obvious.
A hypothesis that frustration and
external attribution The process of hostile aggression Aggressive behavior
aggression are strongly related, suggesting
assigning the cause of behavior to some stemming from angry or hostile impulses,
that aggression is always the consequence
situation or event outside a personʼs control, of frustration and that frustration leads to with a primary goal to in¬‚ict injury to some
rather than to some internal characteristic. person or object.
aggression.
extraneous variable Any variable not hypothalamus A structure in the limbic
fundamental attribution error The
controlled by the researcher that could affect system of the brain associated with
tendency to automatically attribute the
the results of a study. aggressive behavior.
causes for another personʼs behavior to
internal rather than situational forces.
Glossary
G-4

L
hypothesis A tentative and testable informed consent An ethical research
statement about the relationship between requirement that participants must be latitude of acceptance In social judgment
variables. informed of the nature of the study, the theory, the region of an attitude into which
requirements for participation, any risks messages that one will accept fall.
I or bene¬ts associated with participating
latitude of noncommitment In social
in the study, and the right to decline or
ideal self The mental representation of
judgment theory, the region of an attitude
withdraw from participation with no
what a person would like to be or what
into which messages that one will neither
penalty.
a signi¬cant other would like him or her
accept nor reject fall.
to be. in-group bias The powerful tendency
latitude of rejection In social judgment
of humans to favor over other groups the
illusion of ef¬cacy The illusion that
theory, the region of an attitude into which
group to which they belong.
members of small groups think they are
messages that one will reject fall.
more effective than larger groups, which inoculation theory The theory that if
may not be the case. legitimacy A group memberʼs feeling of
a communicator exposes an audience
obligation to obey the groupʼs leader.
to a weakened version of an opposing
illusion of transparency The belief that
argument, the audience will devise
observers can read our private thoughts limerence Occurs when a person anxious
counterarguments to that weakened
and feelings because they somehow leak for intimacy ¬nds someone who seems
version and avoid persuasion by stronger
out. able to ful¬ll all of his or her needs
arguments later.
and desires; for limerent lovers, all the
illusory correlation An error in judgment
happiness one could ever hope for is
instrumental aggression Aggressive
about the relationship between two
embodied in the loved one.
behavior stemming from a desire to
variables in which two unrelated events are
achieve a goal.
believed to covary. loneliness A psychological state that
results when we perceive that there is an
interaction When the effect of one
implicit attitude An attitude that affects
inadequacy or a deprivation in our social
independent variable in a factorial
behavior automatically, without conscious
relationships.
experiment changes over levels of a
thought and below the level of awareness,
second, indicating a complex relationship
via automatic processing.
M
between independent variables.
implicit personality theory A common matching principle A principle that
interactionist view of altruism The view
person-schema belief that certain applies in romantic relationships,
that an individualʼs altruistic or sel¬sh
personality traits are linked together and suggesting that individuals become
internal motives interact with situational
may help us make a quick impression of involved with a partner with whom
factors to determine whether a person
someone, but there is no guarantee that they are closely matched socially and
will help.
initial impression will be correct. physically.
internal attribution The process of
implicit self-esteem An ef¬cient system mere exposure The phenomenon that
assigning the cause of behavior to some
of self-evaluation that is below our being exposed to a stimulus increases
internal characteristic rather than to outside
conscious awareness. oneʼs feelings, usually positive, toward
forces.
that object; repeated exposure can lead to
impression formation The process by
interpersonal forgiveness A harmed positive attitudes.
which we make judgments about others.
individualʼs decreased motivation to
metacognition The way we think about
independent variable The variable retaliate against and a reduced tendency to
thinking, which is primarily optimistic.
that the researcher manipulates in an maintain distance from oneʼs relationship
experiment. partner, and an increased willingness to modern racism Subtle racial prejudice,
express conciliation and goodwill toward expressed in a less open manner than
indirect aggression Aggression that is
the partner. is traditional overt racial prejudice and
social in nature, such as social ostracism
characterized by an uncertainty in feeling
and deliberate social exclusion. introspection The act of examining our
and action toward minorities.
own thoughts and feelings to understand
individual self The part of the self that
ourselves, which may yield a somewhat multiple-audience problem In
refers to our self-knowledge, including our
biased picture of our own internal state. persuasion, the problem that arises when
private thoughts and evaluations of who
a communicator directs the same message
and what we are.
J at two different audiences, wishing to
informational social in¬‚uence Social communicate different meanings to each.
just-world hypothesis A hypothesis that
in¬‚uence that results from a person we believe people get what they deserve
responding to information provided by and deserve what they get.
others.
Glossary G-5

N ostracism The widespread and universal postdecision dissonance Cognitive
behavior of excluding or ignoring other dissonance that is aroused after you have
naive realism The belief that we see the
individuals or groups. chosen between two equally attractive,
world objectively while others see it in a
mutually exclusive alternatives.
biased way. ought self The mental representation of
prejudice A biased attitude, positive or
what a person believes he or she should be.
need for af¬liation A motivation
negative, based on insuf¬cient information
that underlies our desire to establish out-group homogeneity bias The
and directed at a group, which leads to
and maintain rewarding interpersonal predisposition to see members of an out-
prejudgment of members of that group.
relationships. group as having similar characteristics or
primacy effect The observation that
being all alike.
need for cognition (NC) An individual
information encountered early in the
difference dimension in persuasion
P impression formation process plays a
concerning the degree to which individuals
powerful role in our eventual impression
prefer effortful processing of information. participative leader A leadership style
of an individual.
characterized by a leader who shares
need for intimacy A motivation for close
power with the other members of the group primary compensation A method by
and affectionate relationships.
and includes them in the decision making. targets of prejudice that reduces threats
negative correlation The direction of posed by using coping strategies that allow
peripheral route processing In the
a correlation in which the value of one the targets of prejudice to achieve their
elaboration likelihood model (ELM),
variable increases whereas the value of a goals.
information may be processed using cues
second decreases.
peripheral or marginal to the content process loss The loss of group ef¬ciency
message.
nonrational actor A view that humans that results from increased group size
are not always rational in their behavior and generally leads to a decrement in
personal attributes An aspect of the self-
and their behavior can be inconsistent with productivity.
concept involving the attributes we believe
their attitudes.
we have. propaganda A deliberate attempt to
norm An unwritten social rule existing persuade people, by any available media,
persuasion A form of social in¬‚uence
either on a wide cultural level or on to think in a manner desired by the source.
that involves changing othersʼ thoughts,
a smaller, situation-speci¬c level that

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