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attitudes, or behaviors by applying rational psychological reactance A psychological
suggests what is appropriate behavior in a
and emotional arguments to convince them state that results when individuals feel
situation.
to adopt your position. that their freedom of action is threatened
norm of reciprocity A social norm stating because other people are forcing them to
physical attractiveness bias The
that you should help those who help you do or say things, making them less prone
tendency to confer a number of
and should not injure those who help you. to social in¬‚uence attempts.
psychological and social advantages to
physically attractive individuals.
normative altruism Altruism that society
R
supports and encourages.
physical proximity effect The fact that
random assignment A method of
we are more likely to form a relationship
normative social in¬‚uence Social assigning participants to groups in an
with someone who is physically close
in¬‚uence in which a person changes experiment that involves each participantʼs
to us; proximity affects interpersonal
behavior in response to pressure to having an equal chance of being in the
attraction, mostly at the beginning of a
conform to a norm. experimental or control group.
relationship.
re¬‚ected appraisal A source of social
O pluralistic ignorance An explanation
information involving our view of how
obedience A social in¬‚uence process suggesting that an individual who
other people react to us.
involving modi¬cation of behavior in is uncertain about what to do in an
response to a command from an authority relational aggression A form of
emergency situation notes how others
¬gure. aggression having direct and indirect
are reacting; if others act as though no
components involving the use of
emergency exists, the bystander will not
observational learning Attitude
social ostracism and rejection (indirect
intervene to help the victim.
formation learned through watching what
aggression) and direct confrontation (direct
people do and whether they are rewarded positive correlation The direction of
aggression).
or punished and then imitating that a correlation in which the values of two
behavior. representativeness heuristic A rule used
variables increase or decrease in the same
to judge the probability of an event or a
direction.
operant conditioning A method by which
person falling into a category based on
attitudes are acquired by rewarding a positive illusions Beliefs that include
how representative it or the person is of the
person for a given attitude in the hopes it unrealistically optimistic notions about
category.
will be maintained or strengthened. individualsʼ ability to handle a threat and
create a positive outcome.
Glossary
G-6

righteous rescuer The designation sinister attribution error The tendency
self-esteem An individualʼs evaluation of
bestowed by Israel on non-Jews who for certain people to overattribute lack of
the self, which can be positive or negative.
helped save Jews from the Nazis during trustworthiness to others.
self-evaluation maintenance (SEM)
World War II.
sleeper effect A phenomenon
theory A theory explaining how the
role strain The discomfort one feels in an of persuasion that occurs when a
behavior of other people affects how you
obedience situation that causes a person communication has more impact on
feel about yourself, especially when they
to question the legitimacy of the authority attitude change after a long delay than
perform some behavior that is important to
¬gure and weakens the agentic state. when it is ¬rst heard.
your self-conception.
romantic love Love involving strong social anxiety Anxiety tied to
self-ful¬lling prophecy A tendency
emotion and having the components of interpersonal relationships that occurs
to expect ourselves to behave in ways
passion and intimacy but not commitment. because of an individualʼs anticipation of
that lead to con¬rmation of our original
negative encounters with others.
expectation.
S
social category relationship
self-handicapping Self-defeating
sanctioned aggression Aggressive A relationship in which bystanders assume
behavior engaged in when you are
behavior that society accepts or that the parties involved belong together in
uncertain about your success or failure at
encourages. some way.
a task to protect your self-esteem in the
face of failure.
schema A set of organized cognitions that social cognition The general process we
help us interpret, evaluate, and remember use to make sense out of social events,
self-identity theory (SIT) A theory
a wide range of social stimuli, including which may or may not include other
proposing that a number of factors predict
events, persons, and ourselves. people.
one groupʼs reaction to competing groups
and concerning what may arise from
scienti¬c method A method of social comparison process A source
identi¬cation with a social category.
developing scienti¬c explanations of social knowledge involving how we
involving four steps: identifying a compare our reactions, abilities, and
self-perception theory A theory
phenomenon to study, developing a attributes to others.
suggesting that we learn about our
testable research hypothesis, designing motivations by evaluating our own
social compensation The tendency to
a research study, and carrying out the behavior, useful especially in the area of
work harder in a group to make up for the
research study. attitude change.
weaknesses of others in the group when
secondary compensation A method of the task is important and motivation to
self-regulation A critical control
handling prejudice involving attempts perform is high.
mechanism used by individuals to match
to change oneʼs mode of thinking about behavior to internal standards of the self or
social dominance orientation Desire
situations to psychologically protect to the expectations of others.
to have oneʼs in-group in a position of
oneself against the outcomes of prejudice.
dominance or superiority to out-groups.
self-schemas Self-conceptions that guide
secret love Love in which individuals High social dominance orientation is
us in ordering and directing our behavior
have strong passion for one another but correlated with higher levels of prejudice.
involving how we represent our thoughts
cannot or will not make those feelings and feelings about our experiences in a
social exchange theory A theory of how
publicly known, increasing the attraction particular area of life.
relationships are evaluated, suggesting
of a relationship.
that people make assessments according
self-serving bias Our tendency to
self-af¬rmation theory A theory to the rewards (positive things derived
attribute positive outcomes of our own
that individuals may not try to reduce from a relationship) and costs (negative
behavior to internal, dispositional factors
dissonance if they can maintain (af¬rm) things derived from a relationship).
and negative outcomes to external,
their self-concept by showing they are situational forces.
social facilitation The performance-
morally adequate in other ways.
enhancing effect of others on behavior;
self-veri¬cation A method of supporting
self-categorization theory A theory and con¬rming your self-identity. generally, simple, well-learned behavior is
suggesting people need to reduce facilitated by the presence of others.
sexual self-schema How we think about
uncertainty about whether their
the sexual aspects of the self, derived from social identity theory An assumption that
perceptions of the world are “correct”
past sexual knowledge and experience, and we all need to have a positive self-concept,
and seek af¬rmation of their beliefs from
which guides future sexual activity. part of which is conferred on us through
fellow group members.
identi¬cation with certain groups.
similarity effect The fact that we are
self-disclosure The ability and
more likely to form a relationship with a
willingness to share intimate areas of oneʼs
similar than a dissimilar other.
life with another person in a relationship.
Glossary G-7

social impact theory A theory stating sociobiology A theoretical perspective that triangular theory of love A theory
that social in¬‚uence is a function of the views social behavior as helping groups of suggesting that love is comprised of
combination of the strength, immediacy, organisms within a species survive. three components”passion, intimacy,
and number of in¬‚uence sources. and commitment”each of which is
spotlight effect A phenomenon occurring
conceptualized as a leg of a triangle that
social information-processing view when we overestimate the ability of
can vary.
of aggression A view stating that how others to read our overt behavior, how we
a person processes social information act and dress, suggesting that we think true partner effect The phenomenon
mediates aggression. others notice and pay attention to whatever whereby an individualʼs tendency to
we do. conform with a majority position is
social inhibition The performance-
reduced if there is one other person who
stereotype A set of beliefs, positive or
detracting effect of an audience or co-
supports the nonconforming individualʼs
negative, about the characteristics or
actors on behavior; generally, complex,
position.
attributes of a group, resulting in rigid and
not-well-learned behaviors are inhibited by
overgeneralized images of members of
the presence of others. trustworthiness A component of
that group. communicator credibility that involves our
social-interactional model A model
assessment of the communicatorʼs motives
stereotype threat The condition that
suggesting that antisocial behavior arises
for delivering the message.
exists when a person is asked to perform
early in life and is the result of poor
a task for which there is a negative
parenting, leading a child to develop
U
stereotype attached to the personʼs group
conduct problems that affect peer relations
ultimate attribution error The tendency
and performs poorly because the task is
and academic performance.
to give in-group, but not out-group,
threatening.
social judgment theory An attitude members the bene¬t of the doubt for
symbolic aggression Aggressive behavior
theory suggesting that the degree of negative behaviors.
that interferes with a victimʼs advancement
personal involvement with an issue
unobtrusive measure A method of
toward a goal.
determines how a target of persuasion will
assessing attitudes such that the individuals
judge an attempt at persuasion.
whose attitudes you are measuring are not
T
social learning theory A theory that aware of your interest in them.
theory A set of interrelated propositions
social behavior is acquired through direct
concerning the causes for a social behavior unrequited love Love expressed by one
reinforcement or punishment of behavior
that helps organize research results, make person that is rejected and not returned by
and observational learning.
predictions about the in¬‚uence of certain the other.
social loa¬ng The performance-inhibiting variables, and give direction to future
effect of working in a group that involves social research. V
relaxing individual effort based on the
value A concept closely related to an
theory of planned behavior A theory that
belief that others will take up the slack.
attitude that is a standard of what is
explains attitude-behavior relationships,
social penetration theory A theory that desirable for oneʼs actions.
focusing on the relationship between the
relationships vary in breadth, the extent strength of our behavioral intentions and
of interaction, and depth, suggesting they W
our performance of them.
progress in an orderly fashion from slight
working model Mental representations
threat to self-esteem model A model
and super¬cial contact to greater and
of what an individual expects to happen in
explaining the reactions of victims to
deeper involvement.
close relationships.
receiving help, suggesting that they might
social perception The social processes refuse help because accepting it is a threat
Y
by which we come to comprehend the to their self-esteem.
behavior, words, and actions, of other Yale communication model A model
transactive memory systems Systems
people. of the persuasion process that stresses
within groups that are sets of individual
the role of the communicator (source of
social psychology The scienti¬c study of memories that allow group members to
a message), the nature of the message,
how individuals think about, interact with, learn about each otherʼs expertise and to
the audience, and the channel of
and in¬‚uence each other. assign memory tasks on that basis.
communication.
References
Ajzen, I. (1989). Attitude structure and behavior. In A. R. Pratkanis,
Aakker, J. L., & Maheswaran, D. (1997). The effect of cultural

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