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They give you more money! You may have heard that it costs up to five times as much
to replace a customer as it does to keep one. So, keep them happy. Underpromise and
overdeliver. [1]
Born-Again Customer. These are previous customers who no longer do business with
you. For some reason they have forgotten about you or they are still upset with you. I
suggest you dig up their file, give them a call, and settle any outstanding grievance. Put
your ego aside and offer restitution to satisfy the customer. Do what it takes to resolve
the situation. Make amends. Very frequently they will once again be receptive to doing
business with you. They often become loyal customers provided you resolve the
problem to their satisfaction.
As you work with your customers, you will find the Sequential Model is applicable to all six
types. Remember: Pay particular attention to your internal customers.
Bag of Wind. You guessed it, these people have little or no impact on the decision.
They are often an easy point of entry into an account but they seldom contribute to the
sales process. In fact they do more harm than good by creating a false sense of
authority. There is nothing worse than wasting valuable selling hours on people who
cannot help advance the sale. However, I'm not suggesting to ignore these people but
rather exploit their knowledge to deepen your understanding and confidence about the
account. They may also provide clarity as to who the allies are and who the bag of
money is. Knowing these people can prove to be a huge advantage; knowledge is power.
Cathcart, Jim CPAE. Relationship Selling: The Key to Getting and Keeping Customers. Page 100. 1990

Perigee Books.
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Definition of Selling
The sales profession has offered numerous definitions of selling. With each writer (this one included)
comes another definition, another viewpoint. However, see what you think.

It's simple. Selling is talking with:
 The right person at
 The right time with
 The right solution for
 The right price, recognizing
 The right time to confirm (close).
I call these the five rights of passage. Your sales call will only be as effective as the weakest right. All
five must work in harmony to advance the sale. Imagine the frustration of trying to close the sale by
talking to the wrong person at the wrong time with the right solution. Therein lies the challenge of
professional selling: earning the right to advance the sale by executing the five rights of passage. You
must be in sync with your client throughout the entire Sequential Model or the sale is lost. Worse yet,
you may end up forcing the sale and creating buyer's remorse. That's where the sinking feeling of regret
creeps into the customer's mind. These five rights give new meaning to "the rights of a customer."

Another definition of selling is, "Selling is the process of disruption." Ultimately, you are there to
facilitate change, disrupt your customers' current situation, and improve their business by suggesting
they buy from you. Don't expect to walk into a prospect's office and hear him or her say with
enthusiasm, "Oh, thank goodness a sales representative showed up! We have done without for so long.
We were hoping someone would drop by soon."

It won't happen. If selling were that easy, you'd be earning the minimum wage.
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Advanced Selling Skills
By this point, you may have wondered if this book addresses advanced selling skills. Legitimate
question. Let me answer it this way: I recently worked with a client who was rather insistent on finding
an advanced selling skills seminar. During our discussion, I suggested that success in a sales call is
directly linked to performing the basics well. We have all heard about professional sports teams
recovering from a slump by going back to basics. The basics never fail us. Strive for brilliance at the
I responded to my client by telling her there is no such thing as an advanced customer. In my years of
sales experience, I have never heard of anyone referred to as such”tough maybe, but not advanced. I
recognize that this is a new concept, but I feel that customers simply represent a variety of positions,
some more senior than others. Regardless of their position, all customers have universal agendas, such
as "why should I buy from you? ... how are you going to help my business? ... what's in it for me?"
These questions are common denominators to every sales call. Advanced selling is simply a matter of
understanding and applying the Sequential Model, coupled with having a positive attitude and the
confidence to pursue a dialogue with fellow human beings, regardless of their position or experience. My
client accepted the analogy, and I proceeded to design a sales course using basic sales techniques
that met her training objectives.
Consider this: The Carnegie Foundation did a study and discovered that only 20% of a person's sales
success comes from product knowledge. It's not just what you know about your product but, more
importantly, it's how you present yourself. This report went on to suggest that up to 80% of success in
sales (and life) is determined by a combination of self-management skills and interpersonal skills. [2]
Other organizations also support these findings. Think about it. As a consumer, when was the last time
you purchased a product from someone you didn't like? Not very often. You probably took your
business and your bag of money elsewhere.
In sales, the common denominator, the one universal constant, is people. People need to like you and
trust you, and to feel that you respect them, before they buy from you. It makes no difference what
product or service you are selling”corporations may "do the deal" but it is people who "do the
relationship." People buy from people.
Cathcart, Jim CPAE. Relationship Selling: The Key to Getting and Keeping Customers. Page 6. 1990

Perigee Books.
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Sales Reps Need Not Apply
A question I am often asked is, "What will be the role of the sales representative in the future?" My
answer is, "The role of the sales representative as we know it today is disappearing. The underlying shift
is from sales representative to sales entrepreneur." The role of a sales professional will not disappear
anytime soon, but responsibilities will include a sound knowledge of selling coupled with a professional
code of conduct.

Unfortunately, the profession of selling is saddled with a lousy reputation. Rarely do we advertise our
careers as, "I'm in sales." It's usually, "I'm in marketing," or "I'm in business development," or "I
represent the XYZ company." The actions of one-dimensional sales representatives continue to fuel the
less-than-stellar reputation of sales. Most one-dimensional sales representatives are motivated by the
one-time hit: get the sale at all costs and take no prisoners. They repeatedly make canned
presentations armed with little more than glossy brochures and a box of donuts. Their basic need is
survival. Repeat business is not part of their repertoire. The future offers no security for the sales

Businesses are scrambling to differentiate themselves as they compete for a piece of those
well-guarded corporate budgets. Sales entrepreneurs are their key to corporate differentiation. The
facilitators of corporate differentiation will be sales entrepreneurs, not traditional sales representatives.
Customers today no longer tolerate the one-dimensional "sales representative" style of selling.
One of the objectives of this book is to foster a mindset of entrepreneurial selling. Your future in selling
lies in your willingness and ability to operate more as a business, a mini-enterprise, thinking as the
president of ME Inc. Sales organizations are slowly reshaping themselves in an attempt to foster
entrepreneurial selling. You are no longer servicing a territory but managing a business. There is a
groundswell of support within the business community supporting the role of the sales entrepreneur.

I am always amazed to see the lack of performance accountability at the sales level as some
companies still accept so-so sales results, where performance falls short of revenue targets. With
nothing more than a verbal spanking, the representative forges ahead optimistically into next year. In
future, sales entrepreneurs will be held closely accountable for all sales-related aspects of their
business, including margins, profits, customer satisfaction, expenses, and results.

I fully expect the future will endorse some form of certification or licensing for sales professionals. In
fact, the International Standards Organization regulatory body is already looking at it.
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The Adult Daycare Center
Entrepreneurial selling also means less time spent in the office. Sales representatives love to hang out
at the office. They tend to take refuge in the office, shielding themselves from the hostile sales arena of
constant rejection. I refer to an office as an adult daycare center. Sales representatives go into the
office, play with the other kids, play with the corporate toys, play on the Internet, retrieve e-mail (half of
which are junk), swap stories of hardship at the coffee machine, and generally appear to be busy. They
are often lulled into sedentary activities, pursuing the art of busyness. Some technologies even
encourage the sales representative to hang out at the office”the fax machine is a classic. It's much
easier just to fax over information and perhaps place a follow-up call”it will save a trip. In fact upon
receiving a request for information, some salespeople will actually send a fax without so much as a
follow-up phone call. My preference is to make a face-to-face appointment. If that fails, I will courier a
professional, customized package containing the requested information. This method is professional
and inexpensive”and courier packages still get attention. Give it a try. If I can't get in to see the person
during my initial telephone conversation, I set up a telephone appointment to follow up my package.
Don't get trapped in the adult daycare center. Your job is to get out there and sell. You can't hunt from a
cave. I recently heard another great line that makes a valid point: "If you want to kill half a day, go into
the office for an hour!"

Entrepreneurial selling goes far beyond core selling skills. As long as your customers continue to
redefine their expectations, successful selling will depend on developing and managing a more
sophisticated set of skills. Consider this: Your goal as a sales entrepreneur is to disrupt current thinking
of customers. Challenge established buying patterns and facilitate change by way of relationships,
trust, and conversational selling strategies, ultimately satisfying both customer and corporate
objectives. In doing this, sales entrepreneurs are guaranteed a job for life, whereas sales representatives
are quickly becoming dinosaurs. The sales force of the future will be lean and mean, equipped with an
inventory of sophisticated skills, possibly representing a mini corporate profit center. The future will not
be an option for sales representatives. Compensation will be heavily weighted toward performance, and
success will be measured by the contribution your profit center delivers to the corporation.

The Sequential Model works only if you work it. Notice it is not available in pill form. There is no easy
way, no magic prescription. The model must be applied and worked not once or twice, but during each
and every sales call. It is a continuous loop, regardless of the type of customer you are working with.
The model is timeless and works regardless of what you are selling or how long your sales cycle is. The
ten steps can be compressed and applied in a 30-minute sales call or spread over a sales cycle of one
year or longer. Consider this book as your prescription to a healthier, happier career as a sales
Having just read this chapter some of you may be feeling a little anxious. You have suddenly realized
your business card reads sales representative, the very title I have unceremoniously denounced. But,
don't despair. Don't think that all your customers will hate you and stop buying from you. If they do it's
not because of how your business card reads, trust me. My intent is not to discourage you, but rather
to nurture an entrepreneurial philosophy. I don't want to read in tomorrow's paper, "Hundreds of
distraught sales representatives were seen leaping from tall buildings as sales entrepreneurs looked
on." Seriously, my objective is to foster a professional code of conduct guided by the qualities of a
sales entrepreneur. You don't have to change your business card, simply change your outlook. Your
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customers are more concerned with your conduct than what your business card says.
As you work through the ten steps of the Sequential Model, I will continue to refer to both titles, sales
representatives and sales entrepreneurs. By now I'm sure you can appreciate that there is a big
difference. Sales representatives react, constantly playing catch-up, whereas sales entrepreneurs are
proactive, always a step ahead of their customers. Sales professionals can no longer afford to just
represent the business, they have to be in the business. We need to stay abreast of ever-changing
customer expectations.

Common currency of a sales call includes trust, rapport, respect, commitment, and knowing that people
buy from people. Success today and in the future means recognizing changes within the sales arena.
Selling is more sophisticated today than it was even five years ago. Although the core competencies of
selling have not changed, change is coming in the form of a longer list of responsibilities. We must
manage and embrace change so that it doesn't manage us.
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1. Cathcart, Jim CPAE. Relationship Selling: The Key to Getting and Keeping Customers. Page 100.
1990 Perigee Books.

2. Cathcart, Jim CPAE. Relationship Selling: The Key to Getting and Keeping Customers. Page 6. 1990
Perigee Books.
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Chapter 2: Attitudes of Success: Five Pillars
Attitude determines your destiny, quality of life, and sales success. The quality of your attitude affects
the quality of your life. These are profound statements but true. The proficiencies of today's sales arena
go far beyond selling skills. Attitude is one of these proficiencies. Without it, all other skills are
handicapped. Attitude is what drives the practice of skills. Attitude has such a compelling influence on
selling that this book would be incomplete without a discussion on the five attitudinal characteristics of
success. Extensive product knowledge alone affords you little advantage if your attitude is one of
indifference or if you lack belief in yourself.

The objectives of this chapter are to share with you the significant role attitude plays in your success
and to examine the human aspect of business. This book integrates the human side of business with
specifics of professional selling. The two cannot work in isolation. As you develop your sales career,
you will be inundated with product knowledge, company policies and procedures, price manuals, and
other tools of the trade. People often lose sight of the human side of selling. Why does the sales
profession complicate such a fundamental process? We put on our business attire Monday morning,
then proceed to divorce ourselves from the human aspect of selling. We become robo-reps guided by a
mechanical process. Through a positive attitude, you can refocus and develop a humanized approach
with your customers.

A positive attitude will convert an average sales professional into a top performer. It empowers you to
achieve new levels of success both personally and professionally. Winners choose to nurture and
develop a positive, winning attitude. They understand the importance of a winning edge and use it to
differentiate themselves in their own personal life and with their customers. Attitude provides that edge.
People prefer to deal with winners.
One of the simplest and best definitions of attitude comes from Elwood Chapman's book, Life Is an
Attitude! He suggests that, "Attitude is the way you mentally look at the world around you. It is how you
view your environment and your future." [1] I agree. Your field of perception and how you view your
environment largely determines your attitude. Is the glass half full or half empty? While looking outside,
do you see the beautiful view or do you see the dirty window? Is it a partly cloudy day or a partly sunny
day? It's up to you. Who wants to do business with a grump? (Maybe other grumps). Be aware that
your nonverbal communication sends a very clear message about your attitude. It comes through loud
and clear as either negative, indifferent, or positive. Two of these outcomes are bad. You need to believe
that what you mentally dwell upon significantly determines your attitude. If you look for the good, you
find it: If you look for the negative, there's plenty of that around too. You are what you think.

In examining the traits of top-achieving sales professionals, it becomes evident that it is not their
product knowledge and selling abilities alone that set them apart. Their habits and patterns of behavior
reflect certain attitudes
One of the challenges associated with maintaining a positive attitude is this little tidbit: Psychologists
estimate that up to 77% of what we hear and see throughout our day is negative. We often experience
"mental negative drift," [2] allowing the negative to dominate our thoughts. Take a moment and think
about a typical day. How are you feeling by 10PM? It takes conscious effort and energy to remain
positive and energized throughout the day. I find it interesting that when asked, "How are things?" or
"How are you doing today?" many people respond by saying, "Oh, not too bad." Not too bad? Do you
mean that most of the time you are bad, but today you're not too bad? Interesting. Tell people you are
having a great day. It's okay, you're allowed to have a great day. Once again, it's attitude.
Chapman, Elwood N. Life is an Attitude! Staying Positive During Tough Times. Page 5, 1992. Crisp

Publication Inc.
Chapman, Elwood N. Life is an Attitude! Staying Positive During Tough Times. Page 23, 1992. Crisp

Publication Inc.


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