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( (
z J +1 cJ +1
i
f(z) = ci z + Â·Â·Â· : (4.10)
1 âˆ’ z 1J +1) âˆ’ 1 âˆ’ z(Ã¿1J +1) + 2J +1) ) âˆ’
( ( (
i=0

These expansions (4.9) and (4.10) of f(z) must be identical, and so (4.4) â€“ (4.7) follow by identi-
Ã¿cation of the coe cients.

The purpose of this algorithm is the iterative construction of the elements of the C-fraction (4.3)
starting from the coe cients ci of (4.1). However, the elements i( J ) ; Ã¿i( J ) are not vectors in the
algebra. Our next task is to reformulate this algorithm using vector quantities which are amenable
for computational purposes.
The recursion for the numerator and denominator polynomials was derived in (3.34) and (3.35)
for case of J = 0, and the more general sequence of approximants labelled by J Â¿0 was introduced
in (3.50) and (3.51). For them, the recursions are
A( J ) (z) = A( J ) (z) âˆ’ zA( J ) (z)ejâˆ’1 ej J ) ;
( J )âˆ’1 (
(4.11)
j
j+1 jâˆ’1

Bj+1 (z) = Bj J ) (z) âˆ’ zBjâˆ’1 (z)ejâˆ’1 ej J )
(J) ( (J) ( J )âˆ’1 (
(4.12)
and accuracy-through-order is expressed by
f(z)Bj J ) (z) = A( J ) (z) + ej J ) z j+J +1 + O(z j+J +2 )
( (
(4.13)
j

for j=0; 1; 2; : : : and J Â¿0. Eulerâ€™s formula shows that (4.11) and (4.12) are the recursions associated
with
J âˆ’1
cJ z J e0J ) z e0J )âˆ’1 e1J ) z e1J )âˆ’1 e2J ) z
( ( ( ( (
i
f(z) = ci z + Â·Â·Â· : (4.14)
1âˆ’1âˆ’ âˆ’ âˆ’
1 1
i=0
76 P.R. Graves-Morris et al. / Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics 122 (2000) 51â€“80

As was noted for (3.55), the approximant of (operator) type [J + m=m] arising from (4.14) is also
a convergent of (4.14) with J â†’ J + 1. We Ã¿nd that
A( J ) (z)[B2m) (z)]âˆ’1 = [J + m=m](z) = A( J +1) [B2mâˆ’1 (z)]âˆ’1
(J ( J +1)
(4.15)
2m 2mâˆ’1

and their error coe cients in (4.13) are also the same:
e2m) = e2mâˆ’1 ;
(J ( J +1)
m; J = 0; 1; 2; : : : : (4.16)
These error vectors ei( J ) âˆˆ V obey the following identity.
C

Theorem 4.2 (The cross-rule [27,40,41,46]). With the partly artiÃ¿cial initialisation
eâˆ’2+1) = âˆž;
(J
e0J ) = cJ +1
(
for J = 0; 1; 2; : : : ; (4.17)
the error vectors obey the identity
ei+2 = ei( J +1) + ei( J ) [eiâˆ’2
( J âˆ’1) ( J +1)âˆ’1
âˆ’ ei( J âˆ’1)âˆ’1 ]ei( J ) (4.18)
for J Â¿0 and iÂ¿0.

Remark. These entries are displayed in Fig. 9 at positions corresponding to their associated approx-
imants (see (4.13)) which satisfy the compass rule.

Proof. We identify the elements of (4.3) and (4.14) and obtain
(J)
= e2jâˆ’1 e2j ) ;
( J )âˆ’1 ( J
Ã¿j+1 = e2j )âˆ’1 e2j+1 :
(J) (J (J)
(4.19)
j+1

We use (4.16) to standardise on even-valued subscripts for the error vectors in (4.19):
(J)
= e2j âˆ’1)âˆ’1 e2j ) ;
(J (J
Ã¿j+1 = e2j )âˆ’1 e2j+2 :
(J) (J ( J âˆ’1)
(4.20)
j+1

Substitute (4.20) in (4.6) with m = j + 1 and i = 2j, giving
ei( J âˆ’1)âˆ’1 ei( J ) + ei( J )âˆ’1 ei+2 = ei( J )âˆ’1 ei( J +1) + eiâˆ’2
( J âˆ’1) ( J +1)âˆ’1 ( J )
ei : (4.21)
Result (4.18) follows from (4.21) directly if i is even, but from (4.16) and (4.20) if i is odd.
Initialisation (4.17) follows from (3.50).

From Fig. 9, we note that the cross-rule can be informally expressed as
âˆ’1 âˆ’1
eS = eE + eC (eN âˆ’ eW )eC (4.22)
where e âˆˆ VC for = N; S; E; W and C. Because these error vectors are designants (see (3.31b)),
Eq. (4.22) is clearly a fundamental compass identity amongst designants.
In fact, this identity has also been established for the leading coe cients p of the numerator
Ë™
polynomials [23]. If we were to use monic normalisation for the denominators
Ë™( J )
Ë™( J )
Ë™
Q (z) = 1; Bj (z) = I; p := Aj (z)
Ë™ (4.23)
(where the dot denotes that the leading coe cient of the polynomial beneath the dot is required),
we would Ã¿nd that
pS = pE + pC (pâˆ’1 âˆ’ pâˆ’1 )pC ;
Ë™ Ë™ Ë™ Ë™N Ë™W Ë™ (4.24)
corresponding to the same compass identity amongst designants.
P.R. Graves-Morris et al. / Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics 122 (2000) 51â€“80 77

Fig. 9. Position of error vectors obeying the cross-rule.

Reverting to the normalisation of (3.64) with q (0) = I and Q (0) = 1, we note that formula
(3.28) is required to convert (4.22) to a usable relation amongst vectors e âˆˆ Cd . We Ã¿nd that
eN eW eN eW
eS = eE âˆ’ |eC |2 H
âˆ’ + 2eC Re eC âˆ’
|eN | |eW | |eN |2 |eW |2
2 2

and this formula is computationally executable.
Implementation of this formula enables the calculation of the vectors e in Cd in a rowwise
fashion (see Fig. 9). For the case of vector-valued meromorphic functions of the type described
following (3.69) it is shown in [40] that asymptotic (i.e., as J tends to inÃ¿nity) results similar
to the scalar case are valid, with an interesting interpretation for the behaviour of the vectors ei( J )
as J tends to inÃ¿nity. It is also shown in [40] that, as in the scalar case, the above procedure is
numerically unstable, while a column-by-column computation retains stability â€“ i.e., (4.22) is used
to evaluate eE . There are also considerations of under ow and over ow which can be dealt with by
a mild adaptation of the cross-rule.
Orthogonal polynomials lie at the heart of many approximation methods. In this context, the
orthogonal polynomials are operators i ( ) âˆˆ A[ ], and they are deÃ¿ned using the functionals c{Â·}
and c{Â·}. These functionals are deÃ¿ned by their action on monomials:
c{ i } = ci ; c{ i } = ci : (4.25)
By linearity, we can normally deÃ¿ne monic vector orthogonal polynomials by 0( ) = I and, for
i = 1; 2; 3; : : : ; by
c{ i ( ) j } = 0; j = 0; 1; : : : ; i âˆ’ 1: (4.26)
The connection with the denominator polynomials (3.35) is

Theorem 4.3. For i = 0; 1; 2; : : :
) = i B2iâˆ’1 ( âˆ’1
i( ):
78 P.R. Graves-Morris et al. / Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics 122 (2000) 51â€“80

Proof. Since B2iâˆ’1 (z) is an operator polynomial of degree i, so is i( ). Moreover, for j = 0; 1;
: : : ; i âˆ’ 1,
i i
(2iâˆ’1) (2iâˆ’1)
j i+j âˆ’1 i+jâˆ’â€˜
c{ i( )} = c{ B2iâˆ’1 ( )} = c{ Bâ€˜ } = ci+jâˆ’â€˜ Bâ€˜
â€˜=0 â€˜=0

= [f(z)B2iâˆ’1 (z)]i+j = 0
as is required for (4.26).

This theorem establishes an equivalence between approximation methods based on vector orthogo-
nal polynomials and those based on vector PadÃƒ approximation. To take account of noncommutativity,
e
more care is needed over the issue of linearity with respect to multipliers from A than is shown in
(4.26). Much fuller accounts, using variants of (4.26), are given by Roberts [41] and Salam [44,45].
In this section, we have focussed on the construction and properties of the continued fractions
associated with the leading diagonal sequence of vector PadÃƒ approximants. When these approximants
e
(0)
are evaluated at z = 1, they equal 2k , the entries on the leading diagonal of the vector epsilon table.
These entries are our natural Ã¿rst choice for use in the acceleration of convergence of a sequence
of vectors.

Acknowledgements

Peter Graves-Morris is grateful to Dr. Simon Chandler-Wilde for making his computer programs
available to us, and to Professor Ernst Weniger for his helpful review of the manuscript.

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