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five times faster than the original AirPort.

Lucent designed and manufactures the AirPort Card for Apple and also manu-
factures a very similar card for other vendors (such as ORiNOCO, a Proxim
brand) but with an antenna built into the card. These Lucent PC Cards are
too long and fat to fit in the slot intended for AirPort Cards, but they can be
used in PC Card-slot“equipped PowerBook laptop computers, as well as in
current and older Apple desktop computers, through the use of a special
adapter card that fits into a Macintosh PCI slot.

A few other vendors (such as Proxim) offer wireless networking cards that
will work in Apple Macintosh computers™ PCI slots or PC Card slots, but most
Apple computer users buy the AirPort Card because it can be installed inside
the computer and attached to the built-in antenna.
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Apple AirPort-ready computers
The Apple computer models that are compatible with the AirPort Card are

iBook: All iBook models.
PowerBook: The PowerBook (FireWire) and some PowerBook G4.
Several of the newest PowerBook G4 models are AirPort Extreme-ready
rather than Airport-ready.
iMac: The iMac (slot-loading except 350 MHz model), iMac (Summer
2000 except Indigo 350 MHz model), iMac (early 2001), iMac (Summer
2001), and iMac (flat panel). You also need an AirPort Card Adapter to
install an AirPort Card into any AirPort-ready, G3-based, slot-loading
iMac.
Power Mac G4: All models except Power Mac G4 (PCI Graphics).

Apple computers that are equipped for installation of an AirPort Card have
an antenna built into the body of the computer. When you install the AirPort
Card, you attach the AirPort Card to the built-in antenna. (All radios need an
antenna to be able to send and receive radio signals, and wireless networking
cards are no exception.)

You can use any standard PC Card Wi-Fi card in an older PowerBook (or
Power Mac with a PC Card adapter installed) if you can find drivers. The
open source driver project is located at SourceForge (http://wireless
driver.sourceforge.net/).

Installing an AirPort Card
Apple considers the AirPort Card a user-installable upgrade, which means
that the procedure is very straightforward and easy to accomplish. The exact
steps vary depending on which computer you have.

Your Apple dealer or local Apple retail store will probably install an AirPort
for you rather cheaply ($20 or so) if you don™t feel comfortable getting inside
your Mac.

If you purchase the AirPort Card in a retail box, it often comes installed in an
iMac AirPort Card adapter. This adapter is required to install the card in an
iMac, but you must remove it if you™re going to install the card in an iBook, a
PowerBook, or a Power Mac G4.
138 Part III: Installing a Wireless Network

1. Shut down the computer.
2. Unplug the appropriate cabling:
• For models except the iMac and Power Mac G4: Unplug all cables,
such as the power, keyboard, mouse, printer cables, modem, and
so on.
• For the iMac and Power Mac G4: Leave the power cord plugged in
for now.
3. To avoid discharging damaging static electricity through the AirPort
Card, be sure to touch a metal part on the computer chassis before
touching the AirPort Card to the computer.
Or even better, purchase an electrostatic discharge (ESD) strap from a
local electronics or computer store. Place the strap on your wrist and
clip the end of the cable to the computer™s chassis.
• For the iBook: Turn it over, use a coin to remove the battery cover,
and remove the battery. Turn the computer back over so that the
keyboard is facing up and then release the keyboard by sliding the
two plastic tabs (between the Esc and F1 keys and between the F8
and F9 keys) away from the display. Lift the keyboard, turn it over,
and lay it on the front portion of the computer.
If you are not wearing an ESD strap: To discharge static electric-
ity, touch any one of the metal surfaces inside the iBook with your
hand ” not with the AirPort Card.
• For the PowerBook: Remove the battery from the expansion bay. If
you™ve locked down the keyboard, open the locking screw
(between the F4 and F5 keys) and then release the keyboard by
sliding the two plastic tabs away from the display. Lift the key-
board, turn it over, and lay it on the front portion of the computer.
If you are not wearing an ESD strap: To discharge static electric-
ity, touch any one of the metal surfaces inside the PowerBook with
your hand ” not with the AirPort Card.
• For the iMac: You can use a coin to open the access panel on the
back of the computer and then touch the metal shield inside the
recessed latch. Then unplug the power cord.
• In a Power Mac G4: You can touch the metal PCI access covers on
the back of the computer and then unplug the power cord.
4. Locate the antenna cable and plug it into the end of AirPort Card.
• In the iBook: The antenna cable is tucked under a wire clip that™s
exposed when you remove the keyboard. Insert the round connector
at the end of the cable into the hole at the end of the AirPort Card.
• In a PowerBook: Remove the screws that hold down the internal
heat shield and lift out the heat shield. Locate the antenna cable
and plug it into the end of the AirPort Card.
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Chapter 8: Setting Up a Wireless Mac Network

• In an iMac: The antenna cable is attached to the left rail guide.
Detach it and remove the cap from the end of the cable. Insert the
cable™s connector into the hole at the end of the AirPort Card.
• In a PowerMac G4: Release the latch on the side of the computer
and lower the side. You™ll find the antenna in the side of the PCI
card guide. Plug the cable into the AirPort Card.
5. Insert the card, with the cable attached, into the AirPort Card slot.
• For the iBook: Flip up the wire clip and then slide the card, with
the AirPort label facing down, under the clip and between the edge
guides until it fits snuggly in the slot that™s beneath the back edge
of the trackpad. Then flip down the clip to hold the card and cable
in place. Replace the keyboard, slip the plastic tabs (between the
Esc and F1 keys and between the F8 and F9 keys) closed, and rein-
stall the battery.
• In a PowerBook: Insert the card, with antenna cable attached, into
the AirPort Card slot at the upper-left corner of the compartment
beneath the keyboard, just above the PowerBook™s PC Card slot.
The card™s AirPort label should be facing downward, and any bar
code or product ID numbers should be facing upward. Replace the
heat shield and the keyboard.
• In an iMac: Turn the AirPort Card (still in the iMac AirPort Card
Adapter) sideways and insert the AirPort Card into the slot while
aligning the edges of the card with the card-edge guides. Close the
access panel and reconnect the cables.
• In a Power Mac: Slide the card through the opening in the PCI card
guide and into the AirPort Card socket on the main logic board.
Close the case and reconnect the cables.



“Come in, AirPort Base Station, over . . .”
The Apple access point (AP) is the AirPort Base Station (ABS, to those in the
know). In addition to serving as a wireless AP, it can act as a cable/digital sub-
scriber line (DSL) router and Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
server, which automatically assigns a network address to every computer on
a network. It even has a built-in dialup modem in case you connect to the
Internet that way.

The ABS can be used to connect to American Online (AOL) ” most access
points don™t even have dialup modems any more. And very few can connect
to AOL. If you don™t have broadband and use AOL, consider buying an ABS as
your access point for a Mac network (or even a Windows network) to get this
capability.
140 Part III: Installing a Wireless Network

The exterior of the original version of the AirPort Base Station is a gray color
(Graphite). The newest AirPort Base Station is white ” the Snow AirPort.
The Graphite AirPort Base Station has one Ethernet port that you can use to
connect to a cable or a DSL modem so that you can share Internet connectiv-
ity among your networked computers. The Snow AirPort Base Station has
two Ethernet ports: a local area network (LAN) and a wide area network
(WAN). The WAN port connects to your broadband modem, and the LAN port
enables you to connect a small, wired network to the Base Station and use
the Base Station as a DHCP server and as a cable/DSL router for your wired
network as well as your wireless network. (Skip back to Chapter 2 for more
about DHCP servers and cable/DSL routers.)

The AirPort Base Station, both the Graphite and Snow versions, also has a 56
Kbps dialup modem that enables you to connect your wireless network to the
Internet via a regular phone line, assuming that you have an account with a
dialup Internet service provider (ISP). (But see the discussion of connecting
to AOL in the “AirPort 2.0 software” section of this chapter.)

The AirPort Extreme Base Station is white, like the Snow version, but is based
on the draft IEEE 802.11g technology rather than IEEE 802.11b technology.
(Jump back to Chapter 2 for more about these two technology standards.) As
a result, the AirPort Extreme Base Station is capable of transmitting data at
54 Mbps, nearly five times faster than the Graphite and Snow AirPort Base
Stations. AirPort Card-equipped Macs can still connect to the AirPort Base
Station Extreme but will not enjoy the higher speed. You need an AirPort
Extreme card equipped Mac to take full advantage of this state-of-the-art Base
Station. In addition, the AirPort Extreme Base Station includes a Universal
Serial Bus (USB) port to which you can connect a printer. All computers
accessing the wireless network can then print to this printer.

Another new feature of the AirPort Extreme Base Station is a bridging feature.
You can now use two base stations together to extend the range of your wire-
less network without the need to run network cabling between the two base
stations.

The AirPort Extreme Base Station offers all these new features and is less
expensive than its predecessors. (Both earlier Base Station models had a
retail price of $299.) There are two models of the AirPort Extreme Base
Station. The basic model has all the features described earlier (sells for
$199), and the deluxe model (retail price of $249) adds a v.90 (56 Kbps)
modem and a port for attaching an external range-extending antenna.
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Apple AirPort Software Updates
Apple has been a pioneer in wireless networking, but as more and more
people use wireless networking and as the number of companies producing
Wi-Fi equipment grows, Apple has continued to improve its wireless prod-
ucts. Amazingly, the majority of the improvements can be applied to the origi-
nal AirPort Card and AirPort Base Station through software upgrades. In
general, if you keep your Mac OS software current (as of this writing, Mac OS
v. 10.2.3) and your AirPort firmware up to date, you will be able to take
advantage of most of the new wireless networking features. (Note: You
cannot upgrade an AirPort Card to an AirPort Extreme Card through a
firmware update.)

Rather than waiting to release all new features at once, Apple continually
puts out updates to its AirPort software. Read on to discover how each of the
new versions of AirPort software can benefit your wireless network.



AirPort 2.0 software
When Apple released the Snow AirPort Base Station, it upgraded the AirPort
software to version 2.0. Your computer must have Mac OS v. 9.0.4 or later to
install this software. Compared with the original Graphite AirPort Base
Station, AirPort 2.0 adds the following features:

America Online compatibility: If you use AOL to connect to the Internet
over a dialup phone connection, AOL™s unique login protocol has been a
stumbling block that has prevented you from connecting to the Internet
through your AirPort™s built-in modem ” until now. Apple and AOL have
collaborated and come up with a way to enable AOL customers to use
AirPort. At the time of this writing, AirPort is the only wireless AP with a
built-in modem that also works with AOL. (Note: AOL users can wire-
lessly connect to AOL using any Wi-Fi wireless network that™s connected
to the Internet via a cable or DSL modem.)
128-bit encryption: The security features have been improved in several
ways including support for 128-bit encryption. Earlier versions of the
base station software supported only 64-bit encryption. Note: You
cannot upgrade the Graphite Base Station to 128-bit encryption, but you
can upgrade your AirPort Cards to 128-bit.
RADIUS authentication and Cisco LEAP client support: Remote
Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) and Lightweight Extensible
Authentication Protocol (LEAP) are enhanced security options of inter-
est to corporate and university IS departments . . . and are a nice bonus
for a wireless home network.
142 Part III: Installing a Wireless Network

Support for up to 50 users: The Graphite AirPort Base Station can handle
as many as ten wireless network client devices. The Snow AirPort Base
Station can handle up to 50 users (up to about 30 simultaneously). For
home use, however, you probably will never exceed ten users.



AirPort 2.0.4 software
But Apple didn™t stop adding features with AirPort 2.0. The last version of
AirPort 2.0 software that will install on Mac OS 9 (actually version 9.2.1 or
higher) is AirPort 2.0.4. In addition to the features in AirPort 2.0, it adds the
following:

Windows VPN support: The AirPort Base Station is now compatible
with Windows Virtual Private Networking (VPN) software that uses
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) or Internet Protocol Security
(IPSec). This is big for businesses and home offices of employees who
want to connect to the main company network over the Internet.
Incoming remote connections: The AirPort Base Station now supports
incoming calls from other computers to the modem port to allow remote
access to the network to which the AirPort Base Station is attached.
Multiple connections to port-mapped services: This feature is for
advanced users and small business owners who plan to host one or more
servers on their network. If you plan to host a Web server, File Transfer
Protocol (FTP) server, or other public server on your system, you can
now map the public ports on the AirPort Base Station to specific private
ports on one or more computers on your private network. This feature
also comes in handy if you want to connect other devices, such as an
Xbox game console, to the AirPort and to Xbox live gaming service.

Most home broadband ISPs don™t permit you to operate a server on your
home computer because you could potentially hog the bandwidth on their
broadband network. For this reason, many broadband service providers

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