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130, 178, 179, 182, 204, 223, 224, visit to Berlin (1935) 129, 130, 132
226, 235, 260“261, 266, 270, 273, visit to Moscow (1935) 129, 131, 132,
287, 302, 305, 309 133“135, 300
career and views 217“218, 219, 232, Edwardes, Arthur 124
242, 267“268 Elliot, Walter 278
Cranborne, Lord 159 Ewer, W. N. 300
Crowe, Eyre 27“28, 30, 248 Eyres Monsell, Bolton 168
376 Index
fascism 3, 36, 215, 229, 327 153, 157, 158“160, 161, 171, 175,
Federation of British Industries 115, 116 179, 183, 186, 199, 200, 201, 202,
Finland 275 203, 217, 219, 237, 241, 253,
Firebrace, R. C. W. G. 208, 239, 272 257“258, 262, 268, 278, 324, 332
First World War, impact on British
inter-war policy 13“19, 18“22, 58, Gafencu, Grigory 284, 285
201, 224, 327“328 Gamelin, Maurice 250, 311
Fisher, Warren 23, 91, 92, 97“98, 116, 123, Gascoigne, Avery 151
124“125, 146, 150, 172, 215, Genoa Conference 47
216, 218 Germany 91, 93, 98
Fitzmaurice, Gerald 270 and Britain 49, 51, 127, 152, 153,
Five-Power Conference 187, 202, 203 162, 173
Flandin, Pierre-Etienne 161 and France 49, 51, 133
Foreign Office and Japan 167, 168, 173, 220
Central Department of 32, 34, 35, 101, and Soviet Russia 39“40, 47, 51, 52, 83,
125, 157, 159, 169, 203, 206, 336 94, 96, 133, 154, 157, 162, 169,
Commercial Department of 16 185, 204, 233, 262, 263, 286, 298
Contraband Department of 17 Government Code and Cypher School, see
Far Eastern Department of 32, 33, 34, ˜intelligence™
35, 75, 76, 93, 100, 101, 114, 172, Grandi, Dino 222, 332
182, 195, 218, 225, 337“338 Great Britain
Northern Department of 32, 33, 35, 77, intellectual basis of foreign policy 70,
84, 159, 180, 338 126, 128, 129, 135, 143, 152,
role in policy making 6, 22 162, 198, 206, 322“323, 326,
structure of 31“32 328, 329, 332
views of France 105“108, 107, 111, 122, Soviet effect on policy of 2“3, 10, 40“41,
131“132, 135“136, 140, 152, 158, 43, 46“47, 52, 81, 94, 95, 99, 120,
173, 237, 250, 256 123, 125, 127, 128, 130, 137, 143,
views of Germany 123, 126, 133, 138, 144, 157, 158, 166, 168, 177, 179,
148, 152, 153, 154, 158, 162, 178, 186, 210, 213, 220, 224, 226, 231,
195, 228 236, 244, 246, 264, 269, 272, 274,
views of Japan 72, 90, 99“102, 104, 111, 278“280, 283, 325
123, 124, 130, 150, 151, 172, 182, structural and systemic effects on foreign
188, 195, 223, 225, 236, 260, policy of 8“12
267“268, 302 Green, William Connor 99
views of Soviet Russia 54, 56, 57, 60, 72, Gregory, J. D. 53
73, 75, 81, 82, 90, 94, 95, 96, ˜guilty men™ 7“8, 37, 41
99“102, 103, 110, 114, 118, 128,
129, 135, 143, 148, 150, 154, 158, Hadow, R. F. 35
168, 177, 178, 179, 228, 237, 246, Hailsham, Lord 164
264, 278“280, 283, 302, 332 Halifax, Lord 56, 202, 226, 237, 239,
´
foreign-policy making elite 6, 16, 22, 218 240, 241, 243, 246, 247, 250, 255,
Four-Power Declaration (1939) 272, 258“259, 262, 265, 276, 277“278,
276, 277 280, 282, 283, 285, 287, 289“290,
Four-Power Pact (1933) 81 290“291, 291“292, 292“293,
France, 293“294, 298“300, 302, 303,
and Britain 49, 105“108, 107, 109“110, 305, 306“307, 308, 312, 314
122, 125“126, 161 career and views 234“235
and Germany 49, 51“52, 127, 137, Hankey, Maurice P. A. 23“24, 30, 64,
140, 161 86, 91, 92, 97“98, 164, 196, 198,
and Soviet Russia 51, 52, 78, 81, 84, 97, 214“215, 228, 233
107, 117, 120, 121, 125, 126, 131“ view of League of Nations 24, 198
132, 133, 135“136, 161, 173, 175, views of Russia 24
179, 183, 184, 195, 249, 256, 262 Harcourt-Smith, S. G. 113, 151, 181
Franco-Soviet Pact 5, 34, 108, 126, 129, Harvey, Oliver 234, 276, 289, 294, 299,
131“132, 135“136, 138“140, 148, 302, 306, 308
Index 377
Henderson, Arthur 29, 57, 63 Kingsley Wood, H. 251
Henderson, Nevile 215, 226, 233, 234, Knatchbull-Hugessen, Hughe 205, 212,
241, 243, 301, 311 217“218, 220, 221
career and views 216“217, 218 Konoe, Fumimaro 261
Herriot, Edouard 238, 239
Hitler, Adolf 78, 81, 84, 117, 122, 131, Lampson, Miles 227
132, 133, 140, 142, 158“160, 162, Lascelles, D. W. 264, 265, 275, 279“280
170, 176, 216, 227, 233, 247, 250, Laval, Pierre 117, 127, 138, 140, 153
262, 264, 271, 293, 321, 319, League of Nations 31, 50, 63, 96, 102,
328, 332 103, 105, 109, 110, 138“140, 147,
Hoare, Samuel 75, 141, 149, 156, 180, 152, 162, 168, 198, 206, 227, 242,
182, 202, 214, 216, 262, 277, 278, 253, 330
284, 292, 293, 306, 326 British views of 50, 107
career and views 145“147, 331 functioning of 11“12
Hoare“Laval Pact 154, 156, 326 intellectual underpinnings 10“11
Hodsoll, E. J. 297 Soviet views of 12, 94, 328
Hodson, Robert 24 weaknesses of 10“12, 166
career, 25 League of Nations Union 17
Hong Kong 232, 270 Leeper, Allen W. A. 89, 105, 107
Hore-Belisha, Leslie 214, 230 Leeper, Reginald (Rex) 82, 229
´
Howe, R. G. 84, 93, 95, 230, 270, 273, Leger, Alexis 183
274, 287 Leith-Ross, Frederick 125, 146, 147, 150,
Hudson, R. 268, 279“280 171, 177, 268
Lenin, Vladimir I. 3“69, 38
ideology, effect on British policy of 3“4, 6, Lindley, Francis O. 72, 76, 80, 145, 300
7, 142, 189, 229, 233, 281, 292, 315, Lindsay, Ronald 27, 29
318, 322“323, 325, 326, 327, 329 Litvinov, Maxim 12, 26, 27, 31, 33, 40,
India 53, 55, 92, 99 52, 79, 82, 84, 93, 94, 95, 100, 105,
Industrial Intelligence Committee 58, 61 106, 109, 111, 115, 121, 122, 123,
Inskip, Thomas 248, 277, 293, 299, 307 125“126, 134, 137, 138, 140, 142,
intelligence 19, 45, 47, 57, 194, 261, 309 161, 179, 180“181, 218, 224, 226,
Inter-departmental Committee on Eastern 237, 241, 245, 246, 249, 252, 256,
Unrest 52 257, 264, 272, 279, 281, 283, 297
Ironside, Edmund 308 dismissal of 286, 288, 289
Irwin, Lord, see Halifax Lloyd George, David 46“47
Ismay, Hastings 167, 169 Locarno, Treaty of 12“13, 50, 51“52, 54,
Italy 82, 94, 96, 106, 121, 136, 140, 166, 128, 135, 138“140, 178, 330
167, 179, 193, 212, 216“217, 219, London Naval Conference (1935) 112, 171
220, 221, 222, 224, 237, 258, Lytton, Lord 70, 71, 72, 74, 88
260, 296
MacDonald, J. Ramsay 47, 56“57, 63, 64,
Japan, 108, 129, 130, 144“145, 329
and Britain 9, 70, 72, 112, 123, 127, MacDonald, Malcolm 305
144, 212, 301 Machiavelli, 222, 319
and Germany 167, 168, 173, 185 MacKillop, D. 224
and naval arms control 112, 120, Maconachie, Richard 62
171, 182 Maisky, Ivan 69, 109, 112, 115, 117, 129,
and Soviet Russia 39, 70, 74“75, 76, 80, 133, 139, 146, 147, 155, 156, 169,
82, 84, 89, 111, 123, 147, 151, 166, 170, 175, 189, 193, 217, 232, 234,
172“173, 185, 187, 224 244, 245, 246, 248, 252, 255, 268,
policy in China 70, 75, 112, 167, 188, 269, 272, 275, 281, 282, 285, 288,
253, 259, 332 289“290, 290“291, 292, 294, 297,
Joynson-Hicks, William 45, 49, 54 300, 304, 309, 310
Mallet, Victor 76
Keelung affair 188, 205 Marco Polo Bridge incident 166, 224
Kennard, Howard 313 Matsudaira Tsuneo 124
378 Index
Maugham, Viscount 248, 251 ˜soft™ 323, 324, 329, 330
Mediterranean Locarno 13, 108, 162, 178 Pratt, John 64, 73“74, 99, 205
mental maps 15, 46, 327, 328 Purges 166, 207“210, 213, 219, 221, 224,
´
mentalite 327 232, 236, 252, 273, 311
Metro-Vickers 1, 26, 35, 69, 79“80, 81
Milne, George 55 Radek, Karl 73, 81
Molotov, Viacheslav 27, 77, 94, 135, 289, Rapallo, Treaty of 47, 51, 52, 54, 84, 125
296“298, 299, 301, 302, 303, 305, Red peril 44“46, 47
306, 308, 309, 312, 314, 316 revisionist Powers 4“5, 41, 82, 94, 254,
Montreux Conference 31, 178, 179, 321, 324, 328
180“181, 226 Reynaud, Paul 195, 242
Morrison, W. S. 278, 305, 307 Rhineland, reoccupation of 166, 170,
Mounsey, George A. 73, 90, 107, 117, 191 171, 174
Munich crisis 37, 246“251, 252, 260, 316 Riga, Treaty of 43
Murray, Gilbert 17 Roberts, Frank 245, 246, 250, 252,
Mussolini, Benito 222, 227, 258, 264, 271, 279, 314
275, 281, 328 Ronald, Nigel B. 220, 221, 261, 274
Roosevelt, Franklin D. 67, 69“70, 93, 197,
Nazi“Soviet Pact 5, 37, 40, 41, 314, 316, 223, 233, 331
319, 325 Royal Air Force, expectations for future
Naziism 3, 178, 327 war 19, 21“22
Neurath, Constantin von 117 Royal Institute of International Affairs
New Economic Policy 38, 43, 76 (Chatham House) 17
Nicholls, J. W. 269, 270 Royal Navy, expectations for future war 19
Nicolson, Harold 245 Runciman, Walter 155, 156, 244, 247, 255,
Nyon Conference 31, 221, 222 302, 306

O™Malley, Owen 35, 122, 126, 190, Saar plebiscite 125
201, 322 Salmond, John 61
old diplomacy 13, 206, 330 Sansom, George 114, 124
Oliphant, Lancelot 36, 77, 90, 95, 200, Sargent, Orme Garton 35, 41, 90,
236, 265, 272, 279, 286 107, 108, 122, 129, 132, 133, 135,
Orde, Charles William 85, 89, 99, 111, 136“137, 138, 140, 148, 152, 158,
112, 117, 124, 127, 130, 146“148, 160, 164, 169, 173, 184, 200, 201,
151, 167, 172, 181, 188, 192, 218, 206, 217, 229, 250, 256, 261, 275,
220, 225, 229, 230 298, 314, 322
Ovey, Esmond 24, 73, 76, 79, 94 career 33“34, 101
career 25“26 views of Soviet Russia 125, 128, 137,
161“162, 170, 186, 257, 282
Perowne, J. V. 126 Seeds, William 25, 264, 265, 269, 272,
Persia 53, 61 278, 279, 283, 288, 296“298,
persuasion, period of 41, 86, 329“332 299, 301, 302, 304, 306, 309,
Perth, Lord, see Drummond, Eric 312“313, 314
Peterson, Maurice 89 career 27
Phipps, Eric 93, 96, 117, 122, 128, 137, Shone, T. A. 94, 103
170, 184, 200, 216, 223, 238, 239, Simon, John 63, 72, 79, 80, 85, 90, 101,
241, 243, 246, 250, 257 107, 109“110, 111, 112, 113, 114,
career and views 214“215, 218 115, 121, 124, 129, 130, 134, 203,
Piggot, F. S. G. 58 213, 243, 249, 293, 307, 325, 331
Poland 200, 202, 219, 236, 246, 247, 262, career and views 63“66, 107, 330“331
271, 274, 275, 276“277, 281, 283, Singapore Naval Base 91, 92, 192, 266,
284, 290, 298, 303, 312, 313, 315, 332 269, 270
Ponsonby, Arthur 48 Soviet Russia
Potemkin, Vladimir 246 and China 57, 220, 245, 253, 261
power 322“323, 333 and France 51, 52, 78, 81, 84, 94, 95,
˜hard™ 323, 324, 330 107, 109“110, 117, 120, 121, 125,
Index 379
131“132, 138, 183, 184, 195, 256, see also Montreux Conference
262, 268 Tyrrell, William 27, 28“29, 214, 331
and Germany 39“40, 47, 51, 52, 78, 83,
96, 152, 153, 169, 204, 233, 254, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
262, 263, 286, 298 (USSR), see Soviet Russia
and Japan 39, 70, 72, 73, 74“75, 76, 80, United States 90, 90, 97, 98, 188“191,
82, 84, 85, 89, 111, 112, 123, 127, 197, 218, 219, 223, 254
144, 147, 151, 166, 172“173, 187, and Britain 9“10, 65, 112, 114, 124, 130,
224, 267“268, 270 168, 178, 195, 207, 225, 232, 243,
and United States 80, 84, 93, 130 247, 259, 260“261, 269, 287, 302,
British loan to (1936) 154“157, 158, 325
162“165, 166, 169 and Japan 99, 106, 112, 124, 130, 144,
nature of foreign policy of 4“5, 36“40, 168, 173, 188“191, 207, 219, 231,
72, 318“321 253, 269, 270, 287, 302, 310
naval disarmament 134, 175, 195, and Soviet Russia 80, 84, 93, 99, 130
204“205, 219
strength of 58“59, 61“62, 76, 77, 84, 96, Vansittart, Robert 27, 35, 41, 62, 74, 75,
166, 186, 205, 207“210, 230, 235, 78, 82, 91, 92, 97“99, 101, 102, 109,
236, 239, 241, 246, 252, 272, 284, 112, 113, 115, 117, 122, 123, 126,
290, 291, 311, 315 128, 129, 130, 132, 136, 138, 140,
Spanish Civil War 166, 178, 183, 188“191, 148, 149“150, 153, 156, 158, 159,
197, 212, 220 162“163, 164, 168, 173, 174, 176,
Stalin, Joseph 37, 38, 39, 40, 78, 133, 135, 178, 179, 181, 183, 184, 191, 196,
208, 264, 303, 326, 328 199, 200, 201, 214“215, 216, 217,
as communist 318“321, 323 219, 220, 224, 228, 237, 238, 243,
Stanhope, Earl 287 245, 247, 249, 250, 257, 269, 272,
Stanhope, Lord 158 279, 286, 292, 300, 321
Stanley, Oliver 238, 247, 278, 284, 292, career 29“30
305, 306, 307 Eden and 31, 185, 219, 229
Stimson, Henry L. 65 views of Soviet Russia 36, 60, 95, 103,
Strang, William 35, 41, 81, 83, 84, 132, 147, 230, 265
134, 203, 206, 217, 219, 265, 279, Vereker, G. G. M. 208, 240
284“285, 299, 300, 301, 302, Versailles, Treaty of 14, 52, 132, 162
303“304, 313 Voroshilov, Kliment Yefremovich 77,
strategic foreign policy 2, 4, 6, 22, 43, 58, 123, 186
63, 85, 88, 105, 112, 120, 152, 158, Vyvyan, John 81, 110
165, 166, 204“205, 210, 212, 214,
253, 254, 256, 268, 269, 270, 305, Walker, Edward 77
315, 318, 323, 325, 327, 329 War Office 57, 61, 71, 84, 102, 111, 114,
Strategical Appreciation Sub-Committee 152, 167, 168, 174, 181, 209, 231,
269, 270 232, 268, 273
Stresa Conference (1935) 134, 135, Webb, Sydney 18
136“137, 138, 152, 330 Wellesley, Victor A. A. H. 34“35, 76, 85,
115, 125, 219
Temperley, A. C. 71 Wigram, Ralph 101, 106, 127, 139, 141,
Temporary Commercial Agreement (1930) 152, 157, 176, 178, 184, 186, 219
57, 68, 72, 81, 330 Wilson, Horace 79, 216
ten-year rule 86 Wilson, Woodrow 14
Thyne Henderson, J. 177, 182 Winterton, Earl of 247
Tientsin Concession 301, 302, 310 World Economic Conference (1933) 67,
Treasury 78, 79, 83
and Soviet Russia 48, 58, 154
involvement in foreign policy 16, 23, 78, Yamamoto Isoroku 124
91“93, 114, 124“125, 146“148, Yoshida Shigeru 186, 187, 191
150, 154, 171, 218, 243, 331
Turkey 53, 180, 241, 252, 298 Zinoviev letter 1, 35, 49

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