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public ¬nances, 637“42 Argentina, 576“7
quangos, 414“16 armed forces
reasons for decisions, 136“7 Crown liability for, 110“11, 354
remedial accountability, 133 homosexuality, 672“4
Scottish Executive, 209 prerogative powers, 464, 465
tribunals, 720“1 public procurement, 488
Adam Smith Institute, 543 Armitage Report (1978), 422
Addison, Lord, 643 Armstrong, Robert, 585
adjournment debates, 607 Armstrong, William, 406, 411
administration of justice, 408 Ascherson, Neal, 217, 218“19
Administrative Justice and Tribunal Council, Asquith, Herbert, 162“3, 361
723 Association of British Insurers, 485
adversary politics, 592 Association of British Pharmaceutical
advertising Industry, 485
election campaigns, 509 asylum
self-regulation, 487 civil liberties and common law, 731
tobacco, 284, 485“6 knowledge of decisions, 100
Advertising Standards Authority, 487 legislation, 67, 102
820 Index


asylum (cont.) Belgium, 279, 292
treatment of refugees, 123, 746“50 Benn, Tony, 30, 365, 384, 386, 424, 495, 519,
Atkins, Humphrey, 178, 576 595, 623
Attlee, Clement, 395 Bertrand Russell Peace Foundation, 548“9
Attorney General Bevin, Ernest, 549
Attorney General™s Of¬ce, 407, 408 bias, 115, 682“5, 730
con¬‚ict of roles, 368“70 Bill of Rights 1689, 5, 28, 55
Iraq advice, 165, 396 Bill of Rights proposal, 21
audi alteram partem, 148 Bingham Powell, G., 520
audits Birch, A.H., 565
European Union, 301 Birkett Report (1957), 475
health authorities, 135 Blackburn, Robert, 28, 366, 638
local authorities, 135 Blackstone, William, 5, 72, 468
quangos, 414 Blair, Tony
Austin, John, 53 1997 election victory, 190
Australia Cabinet committees, 401
British Dominion, 48 Cabinet Of¬ce, 390
electoral systems, 521, 524 constitutional reforms, 6, 24
federalism, 180 declining popularity, 544
open government, 558 Iraq War, 558
parliamentary sovereignty, 52 Labour leadership, 25
quangos, 415 Liaison Committee questions, 617
Spycatcher, 777, 778 management style, 387“8, 393, 396“7,
Whitlam dismissal, 361“2 399“400
Austria, 280, 292 ministerial resignations, 379“80, 581“3
autonomy, 99, 100 parliamentary questions, 611
parliamentary rebellions, 437, 601“3
backbenchers, 599“603 PM™s Of¬ce, 390
Bagehot, Walter, 130, 148, 192, 355, 356, 393, prime ministerial power, 387“8
398, 568 quangos, 413“14
Baker, J.H., 443 resignation, 397
Baker, Kenneth, 90, 91, 92, 93, 215, 582 role of Prime Minister, 385
Baldwin, Stanley, 358 Scottish devolution and, 25
Balfour, Arthur, 570 trade unions and, 549
Bamforth, Nicholas, 581, 658 Blaustein, Albert, 5
Bank of England, 486, 487, 621 Blondel, Jean, 539
Banks, Tony, 365 Blunkett, David, 581“2
Bara, Judith, 530 Bogdanor, Vernon, 5, 190, 213, 354“5, 359,
Barber, James, 388 360, 365, 495, 537, 585, 593
Barberis, Peter, 584, 585 Boyle, Alan, 717
Barendt, Eric, 156, 798 Braithwaite, John, 479
Barker, Anthony, 484 Brazier, Rodney, 118“19, 121, 357“8, 359, 371,
Barker, Rodney, 348 401, 475, 643
Barlow Clowes affair, 626“7 Brazil, 180
Barrington, Jonah, 119 breach of con¬dence, 150“5, 777, 779, 785
Bates, StJ., 365 breach of the peace, 804“10
Baun, Michael, 9 Brewers™ Society, 485
BBC, 513“14, 781“2, 788, 789 Bridgewater, Carl, 608
Beer, Samuel, 6 British constitution
Beith, Alan, 605 constitutional statutes. See statutes
Belfast Agreement. See Good Friday conventions. See conventions
Agreement (1998) de¬nition, 4
821 Index


draft Constitution, 495 departmental coordination, 409
¬‚uidity and fundamentals, 6“8 management, 465
fundamental rules, 5“8 overview, 391“400
globalisation and, 21 role, 393“4
indeterminate character, 5 shadow Cabinet, 595“6
institutions, 4 Cabinet Of¬ce
international dimension, 4“5, 16“17 Blair government, 390“1, 399
living Constitution, 4 Delivery Unit, 391
nature, 3“9 guidance, legislation, 435, 447“8
principles. See principles PM™s Of¬ce and, 390
reform. See constitutional reform policy coordination, 409
rules, 4 role, 390
safeguards, 8“9, 135 Cabinet Secretary, 417
state and constitution, 9“16 Calcutt Report (1986), 83
union constitution, 180“92 Callaghan, James, 357, 381, 558
unwritten, 3 Campaign for Freedom of Information, 22,
British empire. See colonies 548, 559“60
British Indian Ocean Territory, 48 Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND),
British-Irish Council, 242“3 548“9
Brittain, Leon, 97 Canada
broadcasting, election campaigns, 510, British Dominion, 48
512“14, 788“93 Charter of Rights and Freedoms, 171
Brown, Gordon, 390 dissolution of Parliament, 363“4
Bruce-Gardyne, Jock, 532 federalism, 180, 183
BSE Inquiry, 587 parliamentary sovereignty and, 49“52, 75
Budget, 638 patriation of Canadian constitution,
Bulgaria, 280 169“79, 622
Burch, Martin, 316, 397, 399“400 regional economies, 18
Burke, Edmund, 527 Caravan Club, 552
business tenancies, 346“7 caravan sites, 442
Butler, David, 509, 528 care homes, 689“90
Butler, R.A., 356 Carmichael, Paul, 647
Butler, Robin, 585 Carrington, Lord, 371, 576“7, 644
Butler Report (2004), 124, 396, 587, 756 Castle, Barbara, 373, 424
Butt, Ronald, 591, 598 censure motions, 583
by-elections, 532 Central African Federation, 184
by-laws, 256 centralisation, 16, 183, 248, 252“3, 434
Byers, Stephen, 581 Centre for Policy Studies, 543
Byng, Lord, 363“4 CentreForum, 543“4
certiorari, 660
Cabinet Chagos Islands, 48, 142
See also ministers Chalmers, D., 303
2005 membership, 392 Chamberlain, Neville, 398
access to papers, 158 Chandler, J.A., 519
appointments, 392 Channel Islands, 75, 180, 242
Cabinet committees, 400“5, 409 Channel Tunnel Rail Link, 627“8
Cabinet government, 391“2 charities, fund-raising, 487
collective responsibility, 153, 154, 156, 169 Charity Commission, 407
con¬dentiality of proceedings, 150“5 Charles I, 55
conventions, 393 Charter 88, 22, 544
˜core executive™ thesis, 397“400 Chartism, 494
decision making, 391, 395“7 Chastelain Commission, 236
822 Index


Cheblak, Abbas, 759“61 codes of practice
Chevaline project, 395, 641 cost-effectiveness, 487“8
Chief Whip, 370 ministerial guidance, 479“84
Child Poverty Action Group, 548, 554, 694 voluntary agreements, 484“9
Child Support Act, 442, 443, 449 coercion, 433
Chile, 383 Cohen, Nick, 760“1
Chisholm, Malcolm, 379 Coke, Edward, 66, 72
Church of Ireland, 228 Colcutt Report (2000), 630
Church of Scotland, 196, 197 colonies
Churchill, Winston, 383 parliamentary sovereignty and, 41“2, 47“52,
citizenship 56“9, 75
constitutional reform and, 25“6 prerogative powers, 460“1, 465
European Union, 281 commencement orders, 441
civil aviation, 479“80 Commissioner for Public Appointments, 9,
civil liberties. See human rights 413
civil servants common law
Armitage Report (1978), 422 civil liberties and, 728“32
Civil Service Appeal Board, 417“18 constitutional rights, 728“32, 780“2
Civil Service Code, 29, 159, 417, 418“22 constitutional rules, 146“56
Civil Service Management Code, 422“3 development, 113“15
conduct, 419“22 development case study, 150“5
contacts with Opposition, 594 freedom of expression, 780“2
Crichel Down affair, 573, 574 higher-order law, 66
criticisms, 425 radicalism, 66“74, 149
de¬nition, 416 statutory supremacy, 149
dismissals, 417 Strasbourg jurisprudence and, 270, 271
draft Civil Service Bill, 417, 427 Whig view, 700
evidence to select committees, 161, 585, 618 Commonwealth, 348, 363“4
Fulton Report (1968), 557“8 communications
impartiality, 159, 419, 420“1, 422 government campaigns, 158“9
management, 417 interception, 84, 475
ministers, relations with, 371“2, 423“5 people and government, 532
Northcote-Trevelyan Report (1854), 417 Phillis Report (2004), 564
numbers, 416 telephone tapping, 80“1, 269
overview, 416“27 community charge, 189, 201, 260, 432, 442
parliamentary questions and, 609 Community Legal Service System, 720
prerogative powers over, 459, 465 company law, 319
recruitment, 489 compensation
responsibility, 584“9 Channel Tunnel Rail Link, 627“8
special advisers, 426“7 compulsory purchase, 59
tradition of secrecy, 556“8 European in¬‚uences, 660
values, 418“19 HRA claims, 276, 752“3
whistleblowing, 423 judicial review, 660
Civil Wars, 40 state liability for EU obligations, 312“15
Civitas, 543 state liability in UK law, 341
Claim of Right for Scotland, 189 Comptroller and Auditor General, 9, 135,
Clapinska, Lydia, 267 640“1, 642
Clarke, Charles, 582“3 compulsory purchase, 59
Clarke, Kenneth, 383 Confederation of British Industry, 485, 547,
CND, 548“9 549, 550
coal mines, 395, 688“9 Conservative Party
coalition government, 592“3 candidate selection, 540
823 Index


constitutional reform and, 23 legislative process, 435“6
funding, 544 local government, 256
House of Lords majority, 644“5, 646 participatory democracy, 39
libertarianism, 430 pressure groups, 550
policy making, 542“3 statutory instruments, 452“4
pressure groups, 549, 551 consumer information, 564
Scotland, 189, 518 contempt of court, 90“3, 783“6
West Lothian question, 215 contract
Conservative Rural Action Group, 510 Crown liability, 705“7
conspiracy to corrupt public morals, 115 defence contracts, 488
constituency boundaries executive powers, 488“9
Boundary Commissions, 497 federalist constitutions, 182
community of interests, 502 liability of public authorities, 710“11
consultation, 502 public procurement, 488
discretion, 503 contracting out, 488“9
equality of votes, 505“6 control orders, 7, 274, 278, 769“71
interim reviews, 498 Convention Rights. See human rights
judicial challenges, 504“5 conventions
local inquiries, 504 Cabinet procedures, 393
names, 502 Canadian case study, 169“79
Orders in Council, 504 civil servants and, 424
parliamentary procedure, 504“5 codi¬cation, 160, 653
political controversy, 506 collective responsibility, 169
review criteria, 500“3 consequences of breach, 157
reviews, 497“507 constitutional conventions, 5, 156“79
rules of redistribution, 498“500 doubtful conventions, 163“5
special geographic considerations, 501“2 Douglas-Home Rules, 594
Constitution Committee (HL), 217, 436, law of¬cers™ advice, 165
466“7, 642 laws and, 165“9, 172
Constitution Unit, 22, 538, 544 ministerial responsibility, 157, 571“8
Constitutional Affairs Select Committee (HC), monarchy, 162“3, 354, 356, 366
563 nature, 156“7
constitutional reform Northern Ireland legislation, 229
abandoned reforms, 28 origins, 161“3
Cabinet committee, 405 parliamentary sovereignty and, 75
coherence, 24“7 Ponsonby Rule, 164
continuity, 28 records, 29, 160
Labour Government, 21“9, 149“50 royal assent, 165“6, 176
outcome, 28“9 Salisbury-Addison doctrine, 643“4,
stresses, 6 652“3
themes, 25“7 Sewel Convention, 213“14
written constitution, 29“32 treaties, 164
constitutions war, 163“4
See also British constitution Widdicombe Conventions, 159
de¬nition, 10 Cook, Robin, 379, 584, 615
globalisation and, 16“21 COREPER, 292
Ireland, 10“11 Cormack, Patrick, 534
state and, 9“16 Cory Report (2004), 82“3
written constitutions, 10“11 Council of Europe, 62, 264, 265, 279, 675
consultation Council on Tribunals, 98, 718, 719, 720, 721,
Code of Practice, 454 723
constituency boundaries, 502 council tax, 259, 260
824 Index


counter-terrorism environmental liability, 352“3
civil liberties and, 268 EU principle of state liability, 312“15, 341
A decision, 762“8 health and safety, 352
post-A decision, 768“72 immunities, 88“93, 348“54, 703“4
pre-HRA, 759“62 overview, 702“10
control orders, 7, 274, 278, 769“71 public interest immunity, 11, 353
emergency, 764“8 restitution, 709“10
exaggerated threat, 756 torts, 88“9, 354, 703, 707“8
freedom of expression, 781“2 vicarious liability, 708
freedom of movement, 193 war damage, 87“8
legislative drive, 23, 754“5 Crowther-Hunt, Lord, 423
proscribed organisations, 734“5 Cubbon, Brian, 424
stop and search powers, 277, 771 Culture, Media and Sport department, 512
Country Land and Business Association, 549 Currie, Edwina, 617
Countryside Alliance, 552 Curry, David, 215
courts Cyprus, 83, 280, 292
See also judicial review; judiciary Czech Republic, 219, 280, 292
constitutional role, 8
Scotland, 196, 204 Daintith, Terence, 433
separation of powers, 112“15 Dalyell, Tam, 212, 214“15, 600
from executive, 115“24 damages. See compensation
from Parliament, 124“30 Davies, Ron, 244
Cowley, Philip, 130“1, 602, 603, 635 Davis, Kenneth Culp, 94
Craig, Paul, 60, 329, 428, 461, 658 Davis, S. Rufus, 183“4
Cranborne money, 597 De Gaulle, Charles, 355
Crichel Down affair, 573“4, 576, 582 death penalty, abolition, 744
Crick, Bernard, 589“90, 597 Debr©, Michel, 300
criminal injuries compensation, 441“2 decentralisation, 39
criminal law decisions

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