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judicial creativity, 115 See also judgments
no punishment without law, 115, 742 local government resources and, 258“9
non-retrospectivity, 99, 734 reasons, 136“7, 665, 720“1
Croatia, 280 tribunals, 720“1
Croham Directive, 558 declarations, 660, 704
Crossman, Richard, 150“6, 369, 386, 393, 401, defamation
424, 613, 625 local authorities, 772“4
Crown politicians, 776“7
See also executive; ministers; prerogative Defence Committee (HC), 618, 621
powers defence contracts, 488
Commonwealth, 348 degrading treatment. See torture
decay of concept, 347“8 delay, justice, 142
liability. See Crown liability delegated legislation
meaning, 345“7 advantages and disadvantages, 446“50
overview, 345“54 Cabinet Of¬ce guidance, 447“8
planning control, 351 civil liberties and, 737“9
remedies against, 353“4 consideration of speci¬ed matters, 454“5
tenants, 346“7, 351 consultation, 452“4
Crown liability Donoughmore Report (1932), 104, 446,
contract, 705“7 449
damages, 341 framework Acts, 440“1
employees, 351 generally, 145“6
English v Scots law, 703 Henry VIII clauses, 105, 106, 459
825 Index


Joint Committee on Statutory Instruments, rule of law and, 83, 89“91
636“7 detention
judicial interpretation, 106 See also right to liberty and security
judicial review, 459 common law right to solicitor, 730
local government regulations, 261 human rights conditions, 744
Orders in Council, 450 Northern Ireland, 82, 267, 268
overview, 445“59 development
parliamentary control, 635“7 ¬nancial assistance, 463“4
House of Lords, 636, 648 National Economic Development Council,
parliamentary procedure, 456“9, 635“7 550, 551
primary or secondary legislation, 433 Regional Development Agencies, 194
publication, 455“6 devolution
Regulatory Impact Assessments, 454 See also Kilbrandon Report (1973)
Regulatory Reform Orders, 450“1 assessment, 243“4
restrictions on liberty, 146 asymmetry, 243“4
separation of powers and, 104“6 British-Irish Council, 242“3
statutory instruments, 450, 451“9 Concordats, 191, 209“10, 216
Delegated Powers and Regulatory Reform delegated legislation, 145
Committee (HL), 449“50, 458, 642 dominant Scottish debate, 222
delegation of power England, 193“5
executive, 461“2 English dominance, 185, 186
personal liberty orders, 462 federal option, 181“7
unlawful delegation, 462, 666“7 Joint Ministerial Committee, 191, 209, 216
democracy Northern Ireland. See Northern Ireland
See also elections devolution
accountability, 132, 494 Scotland. See Scottish devolution
concepts, 494 UK history, 187“91
constitutional principle, 34“40 UK structure, 180“1, 192“3
constitutional reform and, 25 Wales. See Welsh devolution
freedom of assembly, 796 devolution issues, 204, 206“7, 210“12
freedom of expression, 772“7 Dewar, Donald, 217
in¬‚uence of people on government, 531“9 Dicey, A.V.
liberal democracy, 35“6, 38, 39 conventions, 156, 166“7, 575
mandates, 526“31 equality before the law, 88“9
open government, 556“64 federalism, 183, 186
participatory democracy, 37“40, 494, 556 freedom of assembly, 798, 801
referendums. See referendums Irish Home Rule, 533
representative democracy, 35“7, 38, 39, 533, parliamentary sovereignty, 40, 41, 42“7, 48,
553, 568 66, 72, 102
responsible government, 565“71 popular sovereignty and, 495
right to free elections, 743 prerogative powers, 468
will of the majority, 37 referendums, 495, 533, 537
Democratic Unit, 544 rule of law, 76, 77, 94, 95, 102, 138“9
DEMOS, 544 Scottish union, 197
Denmark, 217, 280, 285, 292, 623 Whig view, 700
Department for Constitutional Affairs, 408, Dickson, Brice, 647
723 Diplock, Lord, 531
Department for Work and Pensions, 629 diplomacy, 465
deportation disability, 552, 600
delegation of power, 462 discretionary powers
human rights, before HRA, 758“60, 761“2 arbitrariness, 98, 108, 111
ministerial accountability, 134 Council of Europe principles, 675
826 Index


discretionary powers (cont.) accountability and, 494
evolution of principles, 98 broadcasting, 510, 512“14
executive, 462“4 by-elections, 532
fettering, 98, 667 constituency boundaries, 497“507
guidance and, 482“4 deposits, 507“8
judges, 127 exclusionary process, 494
judicial deference, 134, 772 expenditure, 508“10
judicial review. See judicial review fairness, 507“14
limits, 434 franchise, 496
local government, 247, 257, 259 mandate, 526“31
ouster clauses, 67, 89, 102, 695“6 manifestos, 528, 530, 531, 544
rule of law and, 94“8, 108 media, 510“14
discrimination overseas electors, 496
detention of alien suspects, 762, 768 pressure groups, 509, 510
ECHR prohibition, 743 registration, 496
EU prohibition, 285“6 right to free elections, 743
nationality discrimination, 327“35 role, 495“6
Northern Ireland, 231, 242 turnout, 496, 531
retirement age, 336 Electoral Commission
single-sex couples, 64“6 appointment, 497“8
Dominions, 48 Boundary Committees, 249, 498
dominium, 433 creation, 249
Donoughmore Report (1932), 104, 446, 449 functions, 498
Douglas-Home, Alec, 385 interim reviews, 498
Douglas-Home Rules, 594 party funding, 544, 546
Douglas-Scott, Sionaidh, 300 policy development grants, 545“6
Dowding, Keith, 424 referendums, 538, 539
Drewry, Gavin, 94 registration of political parties, 545
Du Cann, Edward, 622, 637 reports, 498
Dubs, Lord, 242 review of constituency boundaries, 497“507
due process. See fair trial/hearing role of elections, 495
Dugdale, Thomas, 573“4, 576 Electoral Reform Society, 538
Duguit, L©on, 3“4, 546 electoral systems
Dunn, John, 21, 34 European Parliament, 293“4, 521, 523
Durkan, Mark, 68, 70 First Past the Post, 515“19
Dworkin, Ronald, 701 Greater London Authority, 521, 523
Dyson, Kenneth, 10 House of Commons, 25
Jenkins Report (1998), 25, 523, 524“6
education, right to, 743 Northern Ireland, 252
education authorities, guidance, 482 one-party government, 497
Edwards, John, 165 overview, 514“26
elections Plant Report (1993), 522, 524
1923, 358, 359 Power Report (2006), 521, 523
1929, 358, 359 PR. See proportional representation
1931, 515 Scottish Parliament, 202“3, 521, 523
1935, 515 transition, 6, 521
1951, 515 Welsh Assemby, 225“6, 521, 523
1974, 357“8, 359, 362“3, 516, 533 electronic communications, 487
1992, 511, 516 Elizabeth II, 196“8, 356, 358
1997, 511, 516, 518 emergencies, derogation from ECHR, 7, 763“7
2001, 511, 517, 531 empire. See colonies
2005, 517, 520, 528, 531, 652 employment, legislation, 444“5
827 Index


England judges, 265
administrative devolution, 193“5 jurisdiction, 266, 267
devolution proposals, 1970s, 188 margins of appreciation, 680
dominance in union state, 185, 186, 192 precedents and domestic courts, 677
Kilbrandon proposals, 188 role, 62
Regional Affairs Standing Committee, 195 UK case load, 267
Regional Assemblies, 194“5 European Court of Justice
Regional Development Agencies, 194 Advocate General, 295
Union with Scotland, 41 Court of First Instance, 295“6
West Lothian question, 214“15 infringement proceedings, 288“91, 296
entrapment, 84 judges, 295
entry powers, rule of law, 78“80 judicial review, 296“7
environmental information, 564 overview, 295“300
environmental law preliminary rulings, 296, 297“300
Crown, application to, 352“3 radical jurisprudence, 300
EU origins, 318 role, 62
equal pay European Economic and Social Committee,
statutory interpretation, 336“8 301
UK implementation of EU law, 288“91, European Ombudsman, 301
322“7 European Parliament
equal treatment, 339 committee-based institution, 27
equality before the law, 77, 88“93 direct elections, 381“2
Erskine May, Parliamentary Practice, 158, 608 election expenditure, 510
estimates, 158, 408, 622, 639 electoral system, 293“4, 521, 523
Estonia, 280, 292 overview, 293“5
European Central Bank, 301 powers, 294“5
European Charter of Fundamental Rights, 286 UK MEPs, 293
European Charter on Local Self-Government, European Scrutiny Committee (House of
255, 262 Commons), 317
European Commission European Union
infringement proceedings, 288“91, 296, 335 citizenship, 281
overview, 286“91 Commission, 286“91
powers, 287“8 Committee of the Regions, 301
European Convention on Human Rights cooperation, 285
See also human rights; speci¬c rights and Council, 293
freedoms Council of Ministers, 291“3
derogations, 7, 268, 269, 763“8 Court of Auditors, 300“1
EU accession, 284 Court of Justice. See European Court of
generally, 264“78 Justice
institutional structures, 265 Economic and Social Committee, 301
origins, 62, 264“5 enlargement, 279“80
pre-HRA in¬‚uence in UK, 270“1 ¬‚exibility, 285
proportionality, 340 institutions, 279, 286“305
text, 740“4 legislation. See European Union law
European Council, 293 objectives, 282“3, 308“9
European Council of Ministers, 291“3 opt-outs, 285
European Court of Auditors, 300“1 origins and development, 279“82
European Court of Human Rights overview, 278“86
application procedure, 265“6 pillars, 278“9
case load, 265, 266 powers, 303
Grand Chamber, 266 principles, 282, 283, 286
impact on UK, 266“70 terminology, 278
828 Index


European Union (cont.) executive
UK membership referendum (1975), 380“1, See also ministers
533“5 discretionary powers, 462“4
UK opt-outs, 285 parliamentary control, 133“5, 606“30,
European Union law 606“42
competence, 61“2, 284 powers, 429“33, 461“89
consistent interpretation, 309, 312, 335“9 categories, 462
Constitution, 280 contracts, 488“9
UK referendum, 168“9, 537 delegation, 461“2
direct and indirect effect, 279, 308“12 development, 605“6
Directives, 302“5, 310“12 guidance and codes, 479“84
effect on UK, 315“41 prerogative. See prerogative powers
Crown immunities, 704 quasi-legislation, 433, 473“9
equal pay, 288“9, 322“7, 336“8 voluntary agreements, 484“8
equal treatment, 339 primacy, 434
European Communities Act, 318“21 separation of powers
Factortame, 61, 327“35 from judiciary, 115“24
food supplements, 334“5 from Parliament, 130“2
government, 315“17 executive agencies
judicial review, 339“40 accountability, 411
Parliament, 317“18 autonomy, 410“11
public law, 321“41 civil service and, 585, 587“8
remedies, 340“1 creation, 409“10
statutory interpretation, 335“9 ef¬ciency, 411
supremacy, 61“2, 72, 73, 320, 321“35 framework documents, 410
environmental protection, 318 no enabling legislation, 411
free movement principle, 281 numbers, 410
new legal order, 73 expenditure
non-discrimination principle, 285“6 estimates, 158, 408, 622, 639
overview, 301“5 parliamentary control, 135, 433, 637“42
principles, 305“15 spending reviews, 640
procedures, 303“4 extra-statutory concessions, 478
public procurement, 488 extradition
Regulations, 302 delegation of power, 462
Scotland and rule of law, 85“6
Act of Union, 198“200
devolution issues, 204, 210“12 Fabian Society, 360, 424, 543
implementation of legislation, 209“10 Factortame, 61, 327“35
social policy, 281 fair trial/hearing
soft law, 302 ancillary rights, 744
state liability principle, 312“15, 341 bias, 682“5
supremacy, 305“8, 320 common law, 730
equal pay, 288“9, 322“7 Convention right, 741“2
Factortame, 61, 327“35 fair procedures, 685“91
parliamentary sovereignty and, 61“2, 72, independent tribunals, 109“12, 116“17
73, 307“8, 321“35 House of Lords, 125
treaties, 280“1 life prisoners, 109“10
UK implementation, 321 natural justice, 148“9, 257, 730, 758
European Union Select Committee (HL), right to hearing, 148
317 separation of courts from executive, 110
Ewing, K., 802 Strasbourg jurisprudence, impact, 268
Exchange Rate Mechanism, 431 temporary sheriffs, 120“1, 211
829 Index


Falklands War (1982), 460, 465, 576, 596 Northern Ireland, 816
family life. See privacy and family life statutory restrictions, 811“18
Farrakhan, Louis, 681 value, 796“8
federalism, 181“7 freedom of expression
Feldman, D., 273“5, 768, 771, 783 case study, 772“96
¬duciary duties, local government, 257“8 common law right, 730, 780“2
Field, Frank, 215 con¬‚ict of rights, 793“6
¬nance Convention right, 742“3
See also expenditure; taxation defamation of local authorities, 772“4
borrowing, 638 defamation of politicians, 776“7
parliamentary control, 637“42 democracy and, 772“7
Public Accounts Committee, 9, 135, 158, election campaigns, 509
475, 587, 640“2 horizontal effect of HRA, 754
¬nancial services, self-regulation, 486“7 Human Rights Act, 786“93
Financial Services Authority, 487 of¬cial secrets and, 277
Finer, S.E., 5, 183, 575“6 Spycatcher cases, 23, 156, 269, 270, 271, 369,
Finland, 280, 292, 623 777“9
Finucane, Patrick, 82“3 statutory restrictions, 782“6
¬shing rights, EU v UK law, 61, 327“35 Strasbourg jurisprudence, 269
Flanz, Gisbert, 5 Freedom of Information Act
Flinders, Matthew, 134, 489 See also open government
¬‚ood insurance, 485 code of practice, 561
Folconer, Lord, 562 compliance, 564
Foley, Michael, 24, 387 consequential amendments, 564

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