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food supplements, 334“5 costs, 560“1
Foot, Michael, 596, 603 enforcement notices, 563
forced labour, 740 executive overrides, 563
Foreign Affairs Committee (HC), 171“5, 587, exemptions, 561“2
620, 622 Information Commissioner, 562“3, 564
foreign policy, non-justiciability, 112 limitations, 28“9, 136, 559“60, 564
Forestry Commission, 407 overview, 559“64
Foster, Christopher, 258, 368, 371“2, 395, 425, parliamentary rebellion, 601
443, 588, 607 procedures, 560“1
Fox, Charles, 361 public interest exemption, 562
foxhunting, 205“8 refusals, 560“1, 562
France, 88, 103, 180, 279, 291 Scotland, 564
Franklin, Daniel, 9 supervision and enforcement, 562“3
Franks Report (1957), 716, 717, 718, 719 freedom of thought, conscience and religion,
Fraser, Malcolm, 362 742
Fraser Report, 217“18 Freeman, Roger, 584
Fredman, Sandra, 749 Friedmann, W., 101
free movement Friedrich, Carl, 531, 566
EC principle, 281 Fuller, Lon, 99
within UK, 193 Fulton Report (1968), 557“8
freedom of assembly fundamental rights
breach of the peace, 804“10 parliamentary sovereignty and, 62“6, 72, 73
case study, 796“818 rule of law and, 100
common law protection, 798“804 fundamental rules, 5“8
common law restrictions, 804“10
constitutional right, 810“11 Gamble, Andrew, 31
Convention right, 743 Garrett, John, 418
democracy, 36 GCHQ affair, 395, 618, 689, 696“700, 759
830 Index


Gearty, Conor, 268, 269, 802 Gowrie, Lord, 578, 579
gender reassignment, 64 Grant, Wyn, 552, 553, 554
general elections. See elections Greece, 266, 280
Genn, Hazel, 719 Greenleaf, W.H., 430
George III, 361 Grey, Earl, 133
George V, 162, 163, 358, 361 Grif¬th, J.A.G., 437“8, 439, 443, 556, 594“5,
George VI, 356, 364 631“2, 701, 731“2
Germany, 18, 180, 184, 279, 291, 292, 293, 525, guidance
526 advantages, 479
gerrymandering, 231 discretionary powers and, 482“4
Gilmour, Ian, 33, 591 education authorities, 482
globalisation executive powers, 478“84
parliamentary sovereignty and, 75 forms, 479
states and, 16“21 local government, 481“2
Glorious Revolution (1688), 40 parliamentary procedures, 447“8, 481
GMOs, 485 police, 482
Goldsmith, Lord, 165, 396 statutory guidance, 479“81
Goldsworthy, Jeffrey, 76 Gulf War (1991), 760“1
Good Friday Agreement (1998), 22, 69, 70, Gummer, John, 318
234“7, 239, 240“1, 242, 243, 537 gypsies, 669
good governance, 20, 25, 26
Gordon Walker, Patrick, 382, 392“3 habeas corpus, 7, 7“8
Gough, J.W., 9 Hague, William, 649
government Hailsham, Lord, 30, 152, 495, 644
coercion, 433 Halliday, Ian, 399“400
departments. See government departments Hammond, Anthony, 580“1
development of modern government, Hansard Society, 27, 105, 435, 444, 449, 522,
429“30 545, 606
executive. See executive; ministers; Prime Harden, Ian, 103
Minister Harlow, Carol, 554
local. See local government Harrison, Brian, 382“3, 537, 555, 592
meaning, 194 Hart, H.L.A., 53“4
Parliament. See Parliament Havers, Michael, 369
policy making, 431“3 Haw, Brian, 735“7
powers, 433“4 Hayek, F.A. von, 101
public interest and, 13 Hazell, Robert, 195, 243
responsible government, 565“71 health and safety, Crown employees, 352
rule by positive law, 82 health authorities, audits, 135
rule of law, 77“88 Heath, Edward, 23, 316, 357, 358, 363, 534,
state and, 12“16 596
government departments Hennessy, Peter, 356, 360, 364, 375, 377, 378,
changes, 406 383, 386, 388“9, 390, 577
de¬nition, 406“7 Hennessy Report (1984), 578, 579
departmental government, 408“9 Henry VIII clauses, 105, 106, 459
executive agencies, 409“11 Henshaw Report (2006), 442
holistic policy making, 409 Herbert, A.P., 739
list, 407 Herbert Report (1960), 248
non-ministerial departments, 407, 410 Heseltine, Michael, 378, 395, 424
overview, 406“11 Hewart, Lord, 700
Public Service Agreements, 409 Hillsborough Agreement (1985), 233“4, 384
supply estimates, 158, 408, 622, 639 Himsworth, Chris, 255, 262
Gow, Ian, 384 Hirst, Paul, 39
831 Index


HM Revenue and Customs, 79, 407, 629 House of Lords
Hobbes, Thomas, 755 See also speci¬c committees
Hoffmann, Lord, 683 1974“9 government, 645
Hogwood, Brian, 412 Blair government, 646“7
Holliday, Ian, 31 committees, 642“3
Holme, Richard, 531 Conservative governments, 645“6
Home, Earl of, 385 Law Lords, 124“6, 650
Home Affairs Committee (HC), 507, 508, 621, legislative powers, 46, 633, 643“8
622 delegated legislation, 636, 648
Home Of¬ce, 407“8 process, 439
homelessness code, 480 legitimacy, 647, 653
honours, 465, 546 reform, 603, 648“53
Houghton Report (1976), 544“5, 591“2 Salisbury-Addison doctrine, 643“4, 652“3
House of Commons Wakeham Report (2000), 649, 650“1
See also Members of Parliament housing, allocation schemes, 685
backbenchers, 599“603 Howard, Michael, 582
control and scrutiny, 133“5, 589“90 Howe, Geoffrey, 379
¬nance, 637“42 human dignity, 99
legislation, 630“7 human rights
overview, 606“42 See also speci¬c rights and freedoms
policy and administration, 606“30 common law protection, 728“32
debates, 606“7 compliance with Convention Rights
dissolution, 362“6, 496 public authorities, 257, 272, 750“2
electoral system. See electoral systems Scottish Parliament, 204, 206“7, 210“12
English representation, 193 tribunals, 721
executive encroachment, 603“4 con¬‚ict of rights, 793“6
Jenkins Report, 25 Convention Rights
large majorities, 571 absolute and quali¬ed, 744“5
meetings, 158 balance of rights, 745
ministerial responsibility to, 157“8, list, 26, 63
571“89 national security and, 754“72
minority governments, 357“60, 568“9 positive and negative obligations, 745“50
Modernisation Committee, 22, 26, 435, scope of protection, 750“4
615“16, 632, 633, 634 text, 740“4
Opposition, 591“9 delegated legislation and, 737“9
Opposition days, 594, 606, 639 HRA 1998. See Human Rights Act
parliamentary Commissioner for Standards, national security and, 277“8, 745
554 case study, 754“72
parliamentary government, 567 control orders, 769“71
power, 589“604 post-A decision, 768“72
primacy, 434 post-HRA 1998, 762“8
questions, 4, 600, 608“13 pre-HRA 1998, 756“62
rebellions, 130“1, 437, 601“3, 635 Northern Ireland, 231, 240“2
reform of working practices, 26“7 protesters, 771“2, 805“10
responsible government, 565“71 recent reforms, 23
Scottish questions, 215 sources of protection, 728“39
select committees. See select committees statutory interpretation and, 733“7
terms, 4, 365, 496 statutory protection, 732“3
extension, 643 Strasbourg jurisprudence, impact, 266“70
˜usual channels,™ 441, 595, 596, 634 Human Rights Act
validity of proceedings, 141 centrality, 732
Welsh representation, 220 common law and, 729
832 Index


Human Rights Act (cont.) Institute for Public Policy Research, 22, 30,
damages under, 276, 752“3 495, 543, 588
declarations of incompatibility, 63, 65, 272, Institute of Directors, 547, 549
771 Institute of Economic Affairs, 543
freedom of expression, 786“93 institutions, living constitution, 4
general scheme, 271“3 Intelligence and Security Committee, 593
horizontal effect, 753“4 interception of communications, 80“1, 84,
impact, 273“8 269, 475
liberty and, 739“72 interest groups. See pressure groups
parliamentary sovereignty and, 56, 62“6, 72, interim enforcement orders, 274
73 International Commission of Jurists, 101“2
remedies, 458“9, 752“3 international law
Schedule 1, text, 740“4 crimes, 772
Scottish devolution issues, 204, 206“7, parliamentary sovereignty and, 42, 74“5
210“12 statutory interpretation and, 42
statements of legislative compatibility, 272“3 international organisations, 4“5, 16“21
statutory interpretation and, 63, 272 internment. See right to liberty and security
victims, 752 IRA, 234, 236, 734, 735
Hungary, 280, 292 Iran, 603“4
hunting, 205“8 Iraq War 2003
Hurd, Douglas, 551 Attorney-General™s advice, 165, 396
Hutton, Will, 495 Butler Inquiry, 124, 396, 587, 756
Hutton Inquiry (2004), 124, 587, 620 Cabinet government and, 396
democracy and, 34
illegality. See judicial review Foreign Affairs Committee and, 620
IMF, 20 ministerial resignations, 379“80
immigration misinformation, 558, 587
See also asylum non-existent WMDs, 756, 766
civil liberties and common law, 731 parliamentary vote, 163“4, 465“6, 601
delays, 142 protesters™ civil liberties, 771“2, 805“10
Immigration Rules, 146, 477, 478 Ireland
rule of law, 83, 89“91 See also Northern Ireland
immunities and privileges Act of Union, 228“9
Crown immunities, 88“93, 348“54, 600, British colonial period, 228“9
703“4 British Dominion, 48
legal professional privilege, 734 constitution, 10“11
NHS hospitals, 600 cooperation on Northern Ireland, 233, 235,
public interest immunity, 11, 353 242“3
quali¬ed privilege, 776“7 EU membership, 280, 285, 292
imperium, 433 Fenian Rising, 192
implement, 660 Home Rule, 533
India, 180 Irish Free State, 192, 229
Indonesia, 18 irrationality. See judicial review
industrial development, 463“4 Irvine of Lairg, Lord, 67, 116, 117, 122, 123
industrial relations Isle of Man, 180, 242
See also trade unions Italy, 180, 266, 279, 291
codes of practice, 480“1
parliamentary rebellion (1969), 603 Jackson, P.M., 135
Information Commissioner, 562“3, 564 Jacobite Rebellions, 55
inhuman treatment. See torture Japan, 180
injunctions, Crown immunity, 89, 90“3, 328, Jay, Lady, 651
704 Jellicoe, Lord, 576
833 Index


Jenkins, Roy, 385 irrationality, 148, 256, 340, 667“75
Jenkins of Putney, Lord, 556 legitimate expectations, 340, 688“91
Jenkins Report (1998), 25, 523, 524“6, 592 natural justice, 148“9, 257
Jennings, Ivor, 161, 177, 386, 398, 592 overview, 660“91
Johnson, Nevil, 29, 94, 366, 384, 556“7, 593, procedural improprieties, 682“91
599, 702 proportionality, 275, 675“82
Joint Committee on Human Rights, 273, 621, ultra vires rule, 148, 656“8
642, 768“9 judiciary
Joint Committee on Statutory Instruments, activism, 8“9, 112“15, 700“2
636“7 appointment, 121“3
Joint Ministerial Committee, 191, 209, 216 background, 115
Jones, Bill, 547 complaints about, 121
Jones, G.W., 397 discretionary powers, 127
Jones, George, 259, 391 enhanced role, 27
Jordan, A., 555 European Court of Human Rights, 265
Jowell, Jeffrey, 100 European Court of Justice, 295
Judge, David, 494, 527 independence, 86, 109“12
judgments from executive, 115“24
deviation from fundamental rules, 7“8 Northern Ireland, 120
ministerial reactions to, 123 public inquiries, 124
parliamentary sovereignty and, 66“74 Scotland, 120“1, 211
Judicial Appointments Commission, 122“3 judge-based constitution, 31
judicial review Law Lords, 124“6
appeal v review, 655 politics, 21, 31, 115, 732
constituency boundaries, 504“5 removal, 118“21
delegated legislation, 459 separation of powers, 103
discretionary powers, 98 from executive, 115“24
English and Scots law, 659“60, 691 from Parliament, 124“30
EU law, impact, 339“40, 660 judicial law making, 112“15
European Court of Justice, 296“7 Lord Chancellor, 115“18
grounds. See judicial review grounds juries, 7
judicial creativity, 8“9, 112“15, 700“2 JUSTICE, 87“8, 121“2, 136, 624, 712, 719
local government activities, 256“9 justice, Magna Carta, 142
nature, 654“9
ouster clauses, 67, 89, 102, 695“6 Kavanagh, Dennis, 509, 530, 547
parliamentary sovereignty and, 67 Kay, Richard, 179
prerogative powers, 695“700 Keir, D.L., 367
procedure, 659“60 Kellner, Peter, 423
quangos, 415 Kelly, David, 124, 620
remedies, 660 Kennon, A., 638
restrictions, 133 Kerr, John, 361“2
scope, 665, 691“2 Kershaw Report, 171“5
standing, 276, 692“4 Kilbrandon Report (1973)
tribunal decisions, 721“2 conclusions, 187“8
judicial review grounds development of modern government, 429“30
bias, 682“5 federalism, 185“6
fairness of procedures, 685“91 mandate, 527
illegality, 148, 661“7 Memorandum of Dissent, 188, 434
fettering discretion, 667 Northern Ireland, 230
improper purposes, 662“3 origins, 532
irrelevant considerations, 663“6 remit, 187
unlawful delegation, 666“7 response, 188
834 Index


Kilfoyle, Peter, 379 quasi-legislation, 433, 473“9
King, Mackenzie, 364 requirement, 433
King, Preston, 181“2 sources, 435, 550
Kitchener, Lord, 575 statements of HRA compatibility, 272“3
statutes. See statutes
Labour Party statutory instruments. See delegated
candidate selection, 540“1 legislation
constitutional reform agenda, 21“9, 149“50 territorial extent, 192“3
election expenditure, 510 legitimate expectations, 112“13, 340, 478“9,
funding, 544 688“91
Lib.“Lab. pact (1977“78), 188 Lester, Lord, 267, 277, 467
party constitution, 25 Levellers, 494
policy making, 541“2 Lewis, Anthony, 155
pressure groups, 548“9 Lewis, Derek, 582
Welsh Assembly, 226 Lewis, Norman, 103
Lakoff, Sanford, 519, 553, 555 liability. See Crown liability
Lane, Jan-Erik, 102 Liaison Committee (HC), 615, 616, 617, 619,
Lansdowne, Lord, 162, 163 620, 639
Lascelles, Alan, 364 Lib.“Lab. Pact (1977“78), 188

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