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Laski, Harold, 446 Liberal Democrats
Latvia, 280, 292 candidate selection, 541
Lauterpacht, H, 74“5 election expenditure, 510
Law Lords, 124“6 electoral system and, 517“18, 592
Law Of¬cers funding, 544
advice, 165, 561 policy making, 543
con¬‚ict of roles, 368“70 popular sovereignty, 495
list and functions, 368 single transferable vote, 521
Scotland, 208, 209, 212 two-party system and, 599
Laws, John, 37, 332 liberalism
Lawson, Nigel, 373, 378“9, 389, 395“6, 431, liberal democracy, 35“6, 38, 39
532 power and, 101
Leach, Robert, 431“2 Liberty, 9, 22, 548, 554“5, 559
League Against Cruel Sports, 548, 549 liberty. See human rights
leaks, 382“3 library services, 663
legal aid, 720, 738“9 Libya, 395
legal personality, Crown, 91 Lithuania, 280, 292
legal professional privilege, 734 Lively, Jack, 36, 526, 529
legal representation, tribunals, 720 Lloyd George, David, 398
Legalise Cannabis Alliance, 547 local government
Legg Report (1998), 584 accountability, 135
Leggatt Report (2001), 717, 719, 720, 722 audits, 135
legislation by-laws, 256
conventions and, 165“9, 172 central government relations, 259“63
Diceyan view, 138“9 centralisation, 248, 252“3
European Union, 301“5 characteristics, 246“7
failure of self-regulation, 487 consultation, 256
government powers, 434“45 decisions and ¬nancial resources, 258“9
impact of HRA on, 273“5 defamation of local authorities, 772“4
incompatibility with HRA, 63, 65, 272, 771 discretionary powers, 247, 259
Orders in Council. See Orders in Council European Charter on Local Self-
parliamentary scrutiny, 630“7 Government, 255, 262
prerogative legislation, 459“61 ¬duciary duties, 257“8
835 Index


functions, 252“2 Mackay of Clashfern, Lord, 118
funding, 259“61 McKenzie, R., 494“5, 547
generally, 244“63 Mackenzie, W.J.M., 550
Herbert Report (1960), 248 Mackintosh, John, 386, 395, 398, 437, 567“8
judicial control, 256“9, 262 McLeish, Henry, 217
Lyons inquiry, 260 Macleod, Ian, 596
ministerial guidance, 481“2 Macmillan, Harold, 356
nineteenth century, 247“8 McNally, Lord, 560, 644
Northern Ireland, 251“2 Macpherson, C.B., 38, 39
objectives, 245“6 Macrory gap, 251
powers, 254“5 McWhinney, Edward, 76
ultra vires principle, 254, 256“9 Madgwick, Peter, 10, 162, 384
public bodies, 253“4 Madrid bombings, 766
Redcliffe-Maud Report (1969), 245“6, 248 Magna Carta, 5, 28, 140, 141“2
Scotland, 248, 251, 255, 262 Major, John, 23, 281, 357, 383, 387, 396, 402,
structures, 247“52 427, 569, 571
Wales, 251 maladministration, 625“6
Widdicombe Report (1986), 159, 246, 259 Malaysia, 585, 662, 694
Local Government Information Unit, 260“1 Malta, 280, 292
local inquiries, constituency boundaries, 504 mandamus, 660
Locke, John, 103 mandate, Parliament, 526“31
London mandatory orders, 660
Development Agency, 194, 250 Mandelson, Peter, 580“1
elections, 648 Manin, Bernard, 38
electoral systems, 521, 523, 524 Manningham-Buller, Eliza, 755
functional bodies, 250 Mareva injunctions, 114
local government referendum, 536“7 margins of appreciation, 680, 764“5
local government structures, 247, 248, 249, marriage, 64, 743
250 Marsh, D., 442
public processions, 813 Marshall, Geoffrey, 144, 157, 162, 356, 361,
Lord Advocate, 201, 208 362, 382, 386
Lord Chancellor Maudling, Reginald, 576
appointment of judges, 121“3 Maxwell Fyfe, David, 574
dismissal of judges, 121 mayors, 250, 524
functions, 368 Maze break-out, 578“80, 582
judicial supervision, 121 media
oath, 120 election campaigns, 510“14
peerage, 371 ministerial resignations and, 581
separation of powers and, 115“18 ownership, 510, 512
Lord Chief Justice, 117, 121, 122 Mediawatch UK, 548
Loughlin, Martin, 17“19, 246“7, 248, 252, 262, Melbourne, Lord, 361
700“1 Members of Parliament
Luce, Richard, 577 backbenchers, 599“603
Luxembourg, 279, 292, 293 code of conduct, 554
Lyons, Michael, 260 independence, 527
mandate, 526“31
McConnell, Jack, 217 party discipline, 527
MacCormick, Neil, 189 pressure groups and, 552, 554
MacDonald, John, 30 private members™ bills, 552, 600
MacDonald, Ramsay, 358, 380, 569 trustee theory, 527
McGuinness, Martin, 237 vacancies, 166
Mackay of Ardbrecknish, Lord, 588 mental health, Strasbourg jurisprudence, 268
836 Index


mergers, media, 512 quasi-legislation, 433, 473“9
metric system, 143, 333 voluntary agreements, 484“9
Michael, Alun, 223 gifts to, 161
Middlemas, Keith, 551 history, 366“7
Miliband, Ralph, 13“16 immunities, 88“93
military force, state power, 19 independent v political functions, 368“70
Milk Marketing Board, 664 junior ministers, 370
Mill, John Stuart, 17, 568 Law Of¬cers. See Law Of¬cers
ministerial responsibility list and functions, 367“70
civil servants™ responsibility, 584“9 local government powers, 259“63
collective responsibility, 160, 371, 373 membership of Parliament, 370
Cabinet, 153, 154, 156, 169 ministers of state, 370
leaks, 382“3 Northern Irish devolution, 239“40
overview, 376“84 numbers, 370“1
Prime Ministerial power, 391 open government, 572
resignations, 378“80, 384 overview, 366“73
convention, 157“8, 571“8 parliamentary questions, 4, 600, 608“13
Crichel Down, 573“4, 582 parliamentary Secretaries, 370
doctrine, 133“5 peers, 371
executive agencies and, 587“8 policy making, 373
individual culpability, 575“6 Prime Minister. See Prime Minister
Maze break-out, 578“80, 582 quango appointments, 413
motions of censure, 583 Radcliffe rules, 155“6
Opposition and, 598 ranking, 373
parliamentary accountability, 571“89 reactions to judicial decisions, 123
personal improprieties, 580“2 resignation, 157
personal responsibility, 373 responsibility. See ministerial responsibility
quangos, 414 scandals, 580“2
resignation convention, 574“84 Scottish Ministers, 208“10
role responsibility, 581 Secretaries of State, 367
ministers support to, 371“3
See also Cabinet; government departments terminology, 366
advisory committees, 411 titles, 367“8
announcements, 605 Welsh Ministers, 225
appointment, 35, 465 minority governments
brevity of tenure, 371 1923, 358, 359, 569
Cabinet committees, 400“5 1929, 358, 359
civil service and, 371“2, 423“5 1974, 357“8, 359, 362“3, 568“9, 592
conduct, 373“6 minority rights, 268
Ministerial Code, 29, 156, 160“1, 374“6, miscarriages of justice, 83
402 misfeasance in public life, 715“16
con¬‚icts of interest, 161 Mitchell, J.D.B., 134
dismissal, 360“2, 366 Modernisation Committee (HC), 22, 26, 435,
EU responsibilities, 316“17 615“16, 632, 633, 634
executive powers, 461“89 monarch
categories, 462 See also prerogative powers
consideration of speci¬ed matters, 464 appointment of Prime Minister, 166,
contracts, 488“9 356“60
delegation, 461“2 dismissal of ministers, 360“2, 366
discretion, 462“4 dissolution of Parliament, 362“6
guidance and codes, 479“84 functions, 355
prerogative. See prerogative powers ministerial advice, 162
837 Index


personal prerogratives, 366 Nigeria, 180, 360“1
powers, 354“66 Nolan Report (1995), 136, 374, 413
republicanism and, 787 nolle prosequi, 464
royal assent, 165“6, 176 Normanton, E.L., 132
royal pardons, 464 Norris, Pippa, 531
Scottish name, 196“8 North, Lord, 361
Monetary Policy Committee, 621 Northcote-Trevelyan Report (1854), 417
Montesquieu, Charles-Louis de, 103 Northern Ireland
Moodie, Graham, 529“30 Border Poll, 232, 533
Morgan, Rhodri, 223 Chastelain Commission, 236
Morris, Estelle, 581 counter-terrorism, 82, 267, 268, 781“2
Morrison, Lord, 571 devolution. See Northern Ireland devolution
Motor Insurers™ Bureau, 486 direct rule, 232“3, 236, 251
Mowlam, Marjorie, 241 discrimination, 231
Equality Commission, 241“2
Nairn, Tom, 218 gerrymandering, 231
Nairne Report (1996), 538 human rights, 231, 240“2
National Audit Of¬ce, 135 judiciary, 120, 123
National Economic Development Council, local government, 251“2
550, 551 Macrory gap, 251
National Health Service, immunities, 352, 600 MEP elections, 293
National Heritage Committee, 812 Orders in Council, 233, 450
national security public processions, 816
civil liberties and, 277“8, 731, 745 rule of law and, 82“3
case study, 754“72 Unionists, 231. 234
control orders, 769“71 Northern Ireland Affairs Select Committee
post-A decision, 768“72 (HC), 233
post-HRA 1998, 762“8 Northern Ireland devolution
pre-HRA 1998, 756“62 1920 settlement, 184“5, 229“31
World War I, 756“7 1972 suspension, 185, 231
World War II, 134, 757“8 1998 referendum, 236, 537
contempt of court and, 784 1998 settlement, 237“40
control orders, 7, 274, 278, 769“71 Assembly, 238
emergencies, 7, 763, 764“7 cross-community support, 239
meaning, 475 excepted matters, 238
non-justiciability, 759 ministers, 239“40
pretext, 763 reserved matters, 238
select committees and, 619 suspension, 450
stop and search powers, 277, 771 assessment, 244
torture evidence, 731 Belfast Agreement, 22, 69, 70, 234“7, 239,
nationality discrimination, 327“35 240“1, 242, 243, 537
natural justice, 148“9, 257, 730, 758 coalition government, 592
naturalisation, administrative rules, 473“4 generally, 228“44
naval boards of inquiries, 464 Hillsborough Agreement (1985), 233“4, 384
negligence. See tortious liability Kilbrandon Report (1973), 230
nemo judex in causa sua, 148 ministerial posts, 68“70
Netherlands, 180, 279 north“south councils, 242“3
New Ireland Forum Report (1984), 230“1 Report of the New Ireland Forum (1984),
New Zealand, 48, 67, 180 230“1
Newsam, Frank, 407 St Andrews Agreement, 70, 237
Next Steps agencies, 409“11, 587“8 search for settlement, 232“7
NGOs. See pressure groups Northern Ireland Grand Committee, 233
838 Index


Northern Ireland Human Rights Commission, conventions, 158
241 effect of EU law on, 317“18
Northern Ireland Of¬ce, 232 law and custom, 138“9
Northern Ireland Ombudsman, 629“30 legislation. See legislation
Norton, Philip, 569“71, 601, 605, 607 Opposition, 591“9
Norway, 623 parliamentary government, 567, 604“5
nuclear weapons, 395, 401, 548“9 power, 589“604
nullum crimen sine lege, 115, 742 revival, 26“7
Scotland. See Scottish Parliament
O™Brien, Mike, 377 select committees. See select committees
OFCOM, 512, 513 separation of powers
Of¬ce of Fair Trading, 407, 486, 512 executive, 130“2
O™Leary, Brendan, 234“5 judiciary, 124“30
Oliver, Dawn, 24, 25, 26, 750 sub judice rule, 129“30
Omagh bombing, 440 parliamentary Commissioner for Standards,
ombudsmen 554
See also parliamentary Ombudsman parliamentary Commissioner Select
access to, 624 Committee, 627“8
Colcutt Report (2000), 630 parliamentary Ombudsman
devolution, 629“30 appointment, 623
England, 630 Barlow Clowes affair, 626“7
reform, 630 Channel Tunnel Rail Link, 627“8
system, 135 civil service and, 589
open government compliance, 626
See also Freedom of Information Act devolution, 629“30
Code of Practice, 559“60 enhancing standards, 629
collective responsibility and, 380, 384 investigation conditions, 624“5
conditional lending, 20 maladministration, 625“6
democracy and, 556“64 MP ¬lter, 624
good governance and, 26 occupational pensions, 628“9
knowledge of law, 99“100 origin, 623
Ministerial Code, 572 overview, 623“30
of¬cial secrets, 11“13, 277 powers, 626
quangos, 414 quangos, 415
tradition of secrecy, 6, 150, 380, 384, 556“8 recommendations, 626
Opposition Leader, 593“4, 597 reports, 623“4
opposition parties, 591“9 role, 9, 98, 559
Orders in Council, 145, 209, 221, 226, 233, 450 parliamentary private secretaries, 370
prerogative Orders in Council, 450, 459“61 Parliamentary Questions Select Committee
Osmotherly Rules, 29, 618“19 (HC), 611
ouster clauses, 67, 89, 102, 695“6 parliamentary Secretaries, 370
Owen, David, 368 parliamentary sovereignty
common law radicalism and, 8, 66“74
Paine, Thomas, 494 constitutional principle, 40“76
Paisley, Ian, 70, 237 continuing sovereignty v new view, 52“61
pardons, 464, 465 conventions and, 75
Parker, Christine, 479 Diceyan orthodoxy, 40, 42“7, 72, 76, 102
Parliament EU legal supremacy and, 61“2, 72, 73,
See also House of Commons; House of 307“8, 321“35
Lords former colonies, 41“2, 47“52, 56“9, 167“8
backbenchers, 599“603 fundamental rights and, 62“6, 72, 73
control and scrutiny, 133“5, 606“42 globalisation and, 75
839 Index


Human Rights Act and, 56 political parties, 541“4
international law and, 42, 74“5 public in¬‚uence, 432
limits, 74“6 political parties
meaning, 40 candidate selection, 540“1
origins, 40 democracy and, 9, 532“3, 539“46
political constraints, 75 funding, 544“6
reappraisal, 61“74 party government, 590
rule of law and, 67, 72, 73“4, 102“3 policy development grants, 545“6
Scotland, 41, 196“201 policy making, 541“4
territorial extent, 41“2, 47“52, 75, 167“8 reform, 22“3
passports, 465, 469, 474, 475 registration, 545
Peach, Leonard, 122 two-party system, 592, 599
peers poll-tax, 189, 201, 260, 432, 442
hereditary peerages, 163, 200“1 Ponsonby Rule, 164

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