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ministers, 371 Ponting, Clive, 368“9
pensions, Ombudsman investigation, 628“9 Popper, Karl, 519
people Portugal, 280, 292
in¬‚uence on government, 531“9 Pound, Roscoe, 4
open government, 556“64 Powell, Enoch, 579“80, 583, 596, 603
popular sovereignty, 494“5 Power Report (2006), 521, 523, 606
Pergau dam, 585, 617, 662, 694 Pre-Budget Reports, 638
Peterloo massacre (1819), 810 prerogative powers
petitions of right, 469, 703 See also monarch
Phillips, Anne, 246 amending legislation, 131“2
Phillips, Hayden, 546 common law origins, 146
Phillis Report (2004), 564 de¬nitions, 468
Pickles, Dorothy, 567 Dicey and, 138
Pimlott, Ben, 356 judicial review, 695“700
Pinto-Duschinsky, Michael, 520 legislative codi¬cation, 467
planning meaning, 146, 465
Crown immunities, 351 non-justiciability, 112
justiciability, 147“8 overview, 464“72
ministerial guidance, 481“2 prerogative legislation, 459“61
Scotland, 262 Prime Minister, 385
Plant, Raymond, 28 reduction, 347
Plant Report (1993), 522, 524 scope, 467“9
Plowden, Francis, 371“2, 607 statutory powers and, 469“72
Plowden, William, 418 treaties, 164, 465, 469
Poland, 280 war prerogative, 87, 163“4, 465“7, 471“2
Polaris, 395, 641 Prescott, John, 373
police press
arbitrary powers, 147 media, 510“12
listening devices, 84 self-regulation, 487
methods, 83 Press Complaints Commission, 487, 512
ministerial guidance, 482 pressure groups
prerogative powers and, 471“2 cause groups, 548
preventive powers, 147 civil disobedience, 555
Police Complaints Commission, 135 democracy and, 532“3, 546“55
policy making election expenditure, 509, 510
coordination, 409 in¬‚uence, 9, 550“3
government, 431“3 interest groups, 547“8
ministers, 373 interveners in judicial proceedings, 554“5
840 Index


pressure groups (cont.) devolution issues, 211
judicial review, 694 reform, 125
NIMBY groups, 553 Privy Council, Orders in Council, 450
representativeness, 554 Procedure Select Committee (HC), 446“7,
status, 11 449, 608, 612, 633, 636, 637, 639, 640
strategies and tactics, 554“5 Profumo, John, 576
value, 555 prohibiting orders, 660
Prime Minister prohibition, 660
appointment, 35, 166, 356“60 property rights, 743
Cabinet appointments, 392 proportional representation
collective responsibility and, 391 additional member system, 523
decision making, 391 alternative vote, 523“4
Deputy Prime Minister, 373 coalition governments, 519
functions, 406 critics, 519“20
leadership of party, 385 Jenkins Report (1998), 25, 523, 524“6, 542
management styles, 387“90 Labour/Liberal discussions, 405
membership of House of Commons, 385 list system, 522“3
Minister for the Civil Service, 417 single transferable vote, 521“2
overview, 385“91 UK practice, 521
PM™s Of¬ce, 390“1, 399 varieties, 521“4
powers, 386 proportionality
prerogative powers, 385, 465 ECHR principle, 340, 675, 676, 786
Press Of¬ce, 391 EU principle, 283, 675
titular positions, 385“6 Human Rights Act, 148
principles judicial review, 275, 675“82
accountability. See accountability margins of appreciation, 680
constitutional principles, 4 Prosser, Tony, 81, 717
democracy. See democracy Public Accounts Committee (HC), 9, 135, 158,
origins, 33“4 475, 587, 640“2
rule of law. See rule of law Public Administration Select Committee (HC)
separation of powers. See separation of draft bills, 622
powers Freedom of Information Act, 560
sovereignty. See parliamentary sovereignty House of Lords reform, 652
Prior, James, 578“9 judicial inquiries, 124
Prison Service, 410 ministerial announcements, 605
prisoners multi-departmental controls, 409
cruel and unusual punishment, 141 occupational pensions, 629
escapes, 582 Parliamentary Ombudsman and, 413,
freedom of expression, 781 624
human rights, 268“9 parliamentary questions and, 609
legal correspondence, 677“80 party funding, 546
Maze break-out, 578“80, 582 Ponsonby Rule, 164
natural justice, 149 prerogative powers, 464“5, 467
Prison Rules, 141, 268, 269, 781 public appointments, 621
release on licence, 95“8, 108“10 quangos, 413, 414
privacy and family life World War II internees, 628
con¬‚ict of rights, 794“6 public authorities
Convention right, 742 access to information, 135“7
telephone tapping, 81 accountability, 135
private members™ bills, 552, 600 conformity with Convention Rights, 257,
privileges. See immunities and privileges 272, 750
Privy Council, Judicial Committee contractual liability, 710“11
841 Index


Crown immunities, 354 selective list, 412
EU meaning, 311 staff, 413
judicial review, scope, 691“2 quashing orders, 660
local government, 253“4 quasi-legislation
meaning, 750“2 advantages, 476
non-departmental public bodies. See extra-statutory concessions, 478
quangos Immigration Rules, 146, 477, 478
rule by positive law, 82 interception of communications, 475
rule of law, 77“88 legal consequences, 433, 478“9
tortious liability, 711“16 legitimate expectations, 478“9
public inquiries, 124 meaning, 473
public interest naturalisation, 473“4
access to information, 563, 572 overview, 473“9
Cabinet con¬dentiality and, 151, 152, parliamentary procedure, 477
153“4 passports, 474“5
collective responsibility, 169 publication, 476
freedom of information and, 562 Queen. See monarch
government and, 13 Question Time, 600
judicial approach, 732
parliamentary questions and, 609 Radcliffe Report, 155“6
scrutiny of government, 779 rape, marital exception, 114, 115
public interest immunity, 11, 353 Rawlings, Rick, 223, 228, 554
public law, development, 10 Rawlinson, Peter, 363
public opinion Raz, Joseph, 99, 102
constitutional safeguard, 9 Real IRA, 734“5
in¬‚uence on government, 531“9 reasons
policy making and, 432 administrative decisions, 136“7, 665
public order tribunal decisions, 720“1
contempt of court and, 784 rebellions, parliamentary rebellions, 130“1,
human rights and, 745 437, 601“3, 635
Public Policy Research, 360 Redcliffe-Maud Report (1969), 245“6, 248,
Public Private Partnership, 489 506
public procurement, 488 reduction, 660
Public Service Agreements, 409 Rees, Merlyn, 506
Public Service Committee (HC), 572 Rees-Mogg, Lord, 129
public services, contracting out, 488“9 referendums
1978 devolution, 188, 535“6
quangos 1997 devolution, 190, 536
accountability and control, 414“16 2004 English devolution, 195
accounts, 414 conduct, 537“9
advisory bodies, 412 democracy and, 533“9
appointments, 413 Dicey on, 495, 533, 537
complaints, 415 EC membership (1975), 380“1, 533“5
de¬nition, 411 EU Constitution, 168“9, 537
executive NDPBs, 412 London local government, 536“7
features, 412“13 Nairne Report (1996), 538
funding, 413 Northern Ireland, 232, 236, 533, 537
human rights obligations, 415 Regional Affairs Standing Committee, 195
judicial review, 415 Regional Assemblies, 194“5
numbers, 411, 413 Regional Development Agencies, 194
overview, 411“16 Reid, Gordon, 638“9
performance targets, 414“15 religion, freedom of, 742
842 Index


remedies overarching constitutional principle, 76“103
Crown, against, 353“4 parliamentary sovereignty and, 67, 72, 73“4,
EU law impact, 340“1 102“3
Human Rights Act, 458“9, 752“3 power and, 101
judicial review, 660 precision, 100
right to, 147“8 retrospectivity, 99
ECHR, 272, 674“5 stability, 100
Scots law, 341 wider concepts, 98“102
republicanism, 787 Rush, Michael, 571
republics, 355 Russell, Bob, 611
responsibility. See ministerial responsibility Russia, 180, 266
restitution, Crown liability, 709“10 Ryle, Michael, 556, 594“5
retrospective law, 99, 734
Rhodes, R., 136, 442 safeguards
Rhodesia, 167“8, 648 constitutional safeguards, 8“9
Richard Report (2004), 223“5, 226 ministerial accountability, 135
Richards, P., 247 Sainsbury, Roy, 719, 720
Richardson, J., 555 St Andrews Agreement (2006), 70, 237
Riddell, Peter, 390, 532, 607 St John-Stevas, Norman, 9, 613
right to liberty and security Saleh, Ali el-, 761
before HRA, 760“1 Salisbury, Lord, 376, 385, 529, 643, 644
British derogation, 7 Salmon, Trevor, 432
Convention right, 740“1 Salmond, Jurisprudence, 54, 55
emergency derogations, 764“8 Sandline affair, 584, 587, 620
Magna Carta, 142 Saville Inquiry, 124
national security and, 7, 277“8, 755, 762“8 Saville of Newdigate, Lord, 83
World War I, 756“7 Sawer, Geoffrey, 182, 184
World War II, 134, 757“8 Scarlett, John, 587
right to life, 740, 746 Scarman, Lord, 29, 76, 121, 796, 800, 814
right to silence, 7, 730 Schauer, Frederick, 796“8
Robinson, Peter, 68“9 Schengen Agreement, 285
Romania, 280 Schumpeter, Joseph, 494
Romlin Commission (1931), 416 Scotland
Roosevelt, Franklin, 31 Act of Union, 41, 195“200
Rose, Richard, 192, 194, 371, 394, 515 Advocate General for Scotland, 212
royal assent, 165“6, 176 breach of the peace, 804
Royal Ulster Constabulary, 82“3, 234 Conservatives, 189, 518
Rudden, B., 5 constitutional model, 366
rule of law Crown liability, 703
autonomy of citizens, 99, 100 devolution. See Scottish devolution
common law origins, 146 freedom of information, 564
Crown immunities and, 88“93 independence, 218“19
defence of private interests, 101 judicial review, 659“60, 661, 691, 694
discretionary powers and, 94“8, 108 judiciary, 118, 120“1, 123, 211
dynamics, 101“2 legal system, 196, 204
equality before the law, 77, 88“93 local government, 248, 251, 255, 262
fundamental rights, 100 Lord Advocate, 201
government under law, 77“88 parliamentary constituencies, 500
independent courts, 86 parliamentary sovereignty and, 41, 196“201
knowledge of law, 99“100 planning, 262
meaning, 77 pre-devolution settlement, 201“2
ouster clauses and, 89, 102 Presbyterian Church, 196, 197
843 Index


remedies, 341 status, 41
standing, 276, 694 validity, 205“11, 212
Strasbourg jurisprudence, impact, 270 legislative reviews, 444
Union position, 195, 195“201 membership, 202
Scotland Of¬ce, 211“12 modern democracy, 217
Scott, Nicholas, 578, 579, 580 opposition parties, 592
Scott Report (1996), 124, 135“6, 408“9, 456, powers, 41, 203
559, 572, 582, 585“6 procedures, 205
Scottish Affairs Select Committee (HC), 202, reserved matters, 203, 204
216 Sewel Convention, 213“14
Scottish Constitutional Convention, 22, West Lothian question, 214“15
189“90 Scottish Public Services Ombudsman, 629
Scottish devolution Scrutiny Unit, 622
1978 proposals, 188 secrecy. See Freedom of Information Act; open
1978 referendum, 536 government
1997 referendum, 190, 536 Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, 240
1998 settlement, 202“12 Secretary of State for Scotland, 211“12
Claim of Right for Scotland, 189 Secretary of State for Wales, 219“20, 227
coalition government, 592 Sedley, Stephen, 30, 93, 128, 702
Concordats, 191, 209“10, 216 Selden, John, 128
devolution issues, 204, 210“12, 271“2 select committees
dominance of debate, 222 See also speci¬c committees
EU legislation, implementation, 209“10 achievements, 620“1
executive devolution orders, 209 bipartisanship, 622, 623
¬nance, 204 chairpersons, 594, 595
First Minister, 208“9, 360 control and scrutiny, 613“23
generally, 195“219 departmental committees, 613“17, 616
history, 188“90, 532 draft bills, 438“9, 621“2
Kilbrandon proposals, 188 evidence, 616“20
Labour Party commitment, 25 civil servants, 585, 618
Law Of¬cers, 208, 209, 212 pressure groups, 552
Parliament. See Scottish Parliament impact, 622
parliamentary sovereignty and, 72, 73 intra-party agreement, 591
pre-devolution settlement, 201“2 list, 614
Scottish Administration, 208 Osmotherly Rules, 29, 618“19
Scottish Executive, 208“10 procedures, 615“16
Secretary of State for Scotland, 211“12 quango monitoring, 414
stability, 191, 216“19, 244 reform, 613, 615“16, 622
Union position, 195“201 role, 9, 27
Scottish Grand Committee, 202, 215“16 weakness, 620
Scottish National Party, 189 self-incrimination, 730
Scottish Parliament self-regulation, 484“8
building, 217“18 sentencing
committee-based institution, 27 life sentences, 95“8, 108“10
constitutional centrality, 16 young offenders, 107
devolution settlement, 212“16 separation of powers
devolved matters, 203“4 constitutional principle, 103“32
electoral system, 202“3, 523 delegated legislation and, 104“6
¬xed terms, 203, 365 Donoughmore Report, 104
legislation executive
devolution issues, 204, 206“7, 210“12 from judiciary, 115“24
reserved matters, 211 from Parliament, 130“2
844 Index


separation of powers (cont.) sovereign. See monarch
ideal or legal principle, 106“12 sovereignty
judiciary Parliament. See parliamentary sovereignty
from executive, 115“24 popular sovereignty, 494“5
from Parliament, 124“30 Spain, 18, 280, 292
law-making, 112“15 special advisers, 426“7
Lord Chancellor, 115“18 speci¬c performance, 704
origins, 103 Spycatcher saga, 23, 156, 269, 270, 271, 369,
Parliament 777“9

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