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thanks Tom Mullen for being a supportive and understanding Head of
Department while work on this book was undertaken. Much more than mere
thanks are owed to Lauren Apfel for her love, support and forbearance and to
Oliver for being his irresistible self.
We would both like to acknowledge what a pleasure it has been to work with
our publishers at Cambridge University Press. In this regard we are particularly
grateful to Finola O™Sullivan, Sin©ad Moloney, Elizabeth Davison and Wendy
Gater.
We have endeavoured to state the legal and constitutional position as at
1 November 2006, although we have been able to take into account subsequent
developments in one or two instances.

Colin Turpin
Adam Tomkins
December 2006
Acknowledgements




Every attempt has been made to secure permission to reproduce copyright
material in this title and grateful acknowledgement is made to the authors and
publishers of all reproduced material. In particular, the publishers would like to
acknowledge the following for granting permission to reproduce material from
the sources set out below:

Robert Blackburn and Andrew Kennon (eds), Gri¬th & Ryle on Parliament:
Functions, Practice and Procedures (2nd edition 2003), pp 409“11. Reprinted
with permission by Sweet & Maxwell.

Rodney Brazier, The constitution in the new politics (1978) PL 117, pp 117“20.
Reprinted with permission by Sweet & Maxwell.

Rodney Brazier, Constitutional Practice p 296, (1988). Reprinted with permis-
sion by Oxford University Press.

Vernon Bogdanor, The Monarchy and the Constitution (1997), pp 61“2, 63.
Reprinted with permission by Oxford University Press.

Ronald Butt, The Power of Parliament (2nd edition 1969), pp 317“18. Reprinted
with kind permission by Margaret Butt.

Lord Carrington, Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth A¬airs,
Letter of Resignation to the Prime Minister, Mrs Margaret Thatcher, 5 April
1982. Reprinted with kind permission of Lord Carrington.

Nick Cohen, ˜Without Prejudice: Return of the H-Block™, The Observer, 18
November 2001. © Guardian News and Media Ltd 2001. Reprinted with per-
mission.

Bernard Crick, The Reform of Parliament (revised 2nd edition 1970), pp 79“81.
Reprinted with permission by Weidenfeld and Nicolson, a division of The
Orion Publishing Group.
xxi Acknowledgements


D. Feldman, The impact of human rights on the UK legislative process (2004) 25
Statute, pp 104“5. Reprinted with permission by Oxford University Press.

S.E. Finer, ˜The Individual Responsibility of Ministers™ (1956) 34 Pub Adm 377
at 393“4. Reprinted with permission by Blackwell Publishing.

J.A.G. Gri¬th, ˜The Place of Parliament in the Legislative Process™ (1951)
14 MLR 279 at pp 287“8. Reprinted with permission by Blackwell Publishing.

Harris v Minister of the Interior 1952 (2) SA 428 (Appellate Division of the
Supreme Court of South Africa). Reprinted with permission from Juta &
Company, Cape Town.

H.L.A. Hart, The Concept of Law, 2nd edition (1994), pp 149“50. Reprinted
with permission by Oxford University Press.

Nevil Johnson, ˜Opposition in the British Political System™ (1997) 32
Government and Opposition 487 at pp 508“10. Reprinted with permission by
Blackwell Publishing.

Kavanagh and Butler, The British General Election of 2005 (2005). Reprinted
with permission by Palgrave Macmillan.

Robert Leach in Maurice Mullard, Policy-making in Britain, pp 34“5. © Taylor
& Francis 2005. Reprinted with permission.

Lord Lester and Lydia Clapinska, ˜Human Rights and the British Constitution™,
in Je¬rey Jowell and Dawn Oliver (eds), The Changing Constitution, 5th edition
(2004), pp 67“9. Reprinted with permission by Oxford University Press.

Jack Lively, Democracy (1975), pp 43“4. Reprinted with permission by Blackwell
Publishing.

Martin Loughlin, ˜Restructuring of Central-Local Government Relations™, in
Je¬rey Jowell and Dawn Oliver (eds), The Changing Constitution, 4th edition
(2000), pp 139“40. Reprinted with permission by Oxford University Press.

Martin Loughlin, ˜The Underside of the Law: Judicial Review and the Prison
Disciplinary System™ (1993) 46 CLP 23, 25“6. Reprinted with permission by
Oxford University Press.

C.B. Macpherson, The Life and Times of Liberal Democracy (1977), pp 6“8.
Reprinted with permission by Oxford University Press.
xxii Acknowledgements


MacCormick v Lord Advocate 1953 SC 396 (Court of Session) Scottish Council
of Law Reporting. Reproduced from Session Cases® by permission of the
Scottish Council of Law Reporting, all rights reserved.

Philip Norton, ˜The House of Commons and the Constitution: The Challenges
of the 1970s™ (1981) 34 Parliamentary A¬airs 253, 254“5, 266“7. Reprinted with
permission by Oxford University Press.

Martin Smith, ˜Interpreting the rise and fall of Margaret Thatcher: power
dependence and the core executive™ in R. Rhodes and P. Dunleavy (eds), Prime
Minister, Cabinet and Core Executive (1995), pp 109“10, 123“4. Reprinted with
permission by Blackwell Publishing.

Patrick Weller, ˜Cabinet government: an elusive ideal?™ (2003) 81 Pub Adm 701,
703“4, 716. Reprinted with permission by Blackwell Publishing.
Abbreviations




ACAS Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Service
AMS additional member system
AV alternative vote
BJ Pol S British Journal of Political Science
CFSP common foreign and security policy
CLJ Cambridge Law Journal
CLP Current Legal Problems
Cm Command Paper (1986“present)
Cmd Command Paper (1919“1956)
CML Rev Common Market Law Review
Cmnd Command Paper (1956“1986)
COREPER Committee of Permanent Representatives
CPAG Child Poverty Action Group
Crim LR Criminal Law Review
DUP Democratic Unionist Party
EC European Community
ECB European Central Bank
ECHR European Convention on Human Rights
ECJ European Court of Justice
EEC European Economic Community
EHRLR European Human Rights Law Review
EL Rev European Law Review
EU European Union
¬rst past the post
FPTP
HC House of Commons Paper
HC Deb House of Commons Debates
HL House of Lords Paper
HL Deb House of Lords Debates
HRA Human Rights Act 1998
ICLQ International and Comparative Law Quarterly
IPPR Institute for Public Policy Research
JHA justice and home a¬airs
JLS Journal of Law and Society
xxiv Abbreviations


JMC Joint Ministerial Committee
JR Judicial Review
JUSTICE British section of International Commission of Jurists
LQR Law Quarterly Review
LS Legal Studies
MEP Member of the European Parliament
MLR Modern Law Review
MSP Member of the Scottish Parliament
NDPB non-departmental public bodies
NEDC National Economic Development Council
NILQ Northern Ireland Legal Quarterly
NLJ New Law Journal
OJLS Oxford Journal of Legal Studies
PL Public Law
PPB party political broadcast
PR proportional representation
Pub Adm Public Administration
QMV quali¬ed majority voting
QUANGO quasi-autonomous non-governmental organisation
SDLP Social Democratic and Labour Party
SIAC Special Immigration Appeals Commission
Stat LR Statute Law Review
STV single transferable vote
TEU Treaty on European Union
UUP Ulster Unionist Party
Table of Cases




A v B plc [2002] EWCA Civ 337, [2003] QB 195...........................................................754
A v Head Teacher and Governors of Lord Grey School [2004] EWCA Civ 382,
[2004] 4 All ER 628 .......................................................................................................11
A v Secretary of State for the Home Department [2004] UKHL 56, [2005] 2 AC
68 ................................................................................7, 274, 277, 680, 755, 756, 762“72
A v Secretary of State for the Home Department (No 2) [2005] UKHL 71, [2006]
2 AC 221.......................................................................................................................731
A v United Kingdom (1998) 27 EHRR 611....................................................................747
Abbasi v Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs [2002] EWCA
Civ 1598 .......................................................................................................................112
Accession to the ECHR, Opinion 2/94 [1996] ECR I-1759 ..........................................284
Adams v Naylor [1946] AC 543 ......................................................................................707
Adams v Scottish Ministers 2004 SC 665 ...........................................206“8, 211, 256, 666
Adegenro v Akintola [1963] AC 614 ..........................................................................360“1
Agricultural Training Board v Aylesbury Mushrooms Ltd [1972] 1 WLR 190............452
Air Canada v Secretary of State for Trade (No 2) [1983] 2 AC 394..............................150
Airedale NHS Trust v Bland [1993] AC 789 ..................................................................114
Akumah v Hackney LBC [2005] UKHL 17, [2005] 2 All ER 148 .................................254
Albert (Prince) v Strange (1849) 1 H & TW 1...............................................................152
Albert v Lavin [1982] AC 546 .........................................................................805, 807, 808
Amministrazione delle Finanze dello Stato v Simmenthal SpA, Case 106/77
[1978] ECR 629 .......................................................................................................306“8
Anisminic Ltd v Foreign Compensation Commission [1969] 2 AC 147.............415, 443,
661, 695
Anufrijeva v Southwark LBC [2004] QB 1124...............................................................276
Appleby v United Kingdom (2003) 37 EHRR 38.....................................................815“16
Argyll (Duchess of) v Duke of Argyll [1967] Ch 302....................................................152
Arlidge v Islington Corpn [1909] 2 KB 127 ...................................................................256
Ashworth Hospital Authority v MGN Ltd [2002] UKHL 29, [2002] 1 WLR 2033 .....786
Associated Provincial Picture Houses Ltd v Wednesbury Corpn [1948] 1 KB 223
......................................................................................................256, 504, 655, 667, 782
Aston Cantlow Parochial Church Council v Wallbank [2003] UKHL 37, [2004]
1 AC..............................................................................................................546, 750, 751
Attorney General v De Keyser™s Royal Hotel Ltd [1920] AC 508 ............469“70, 472, 697
Attorney General v English [1983] 1 AC 116.........................................................783, 784
Attorney General v Fulham Corpn [1921] 1 Ch 440.....................................................256
xxvi Table of Cases


Attorney General v Guardian Newspapers Ltd [1987] 1 WLR 1248 ........271, 777“8, 780
Attorney General v Guardian Newspapers Ltd [1992] 1 WLR 874 ..............................784
Attorney General v Guardian Newspapers Ltd (No 2) [1990] 1 AC 109.......13, 271, 775,
778“9, 780
Attorney General v Jonathan Cape Ltd [1976] QB 752.............................150“5, 169, 777
Attorney General v News Group Newspapers Ltd [1987] QB 1 ...................................783
Attorney General v Newspaper Publishing plc [1988] Ch 333 .............................369, 777
Attorney General v Times Newspapers Ltd [1974] AC 273 ..................................269, 780
Attorney General v Times Newspapers Ltd [1992] AC 191 ..........................................777
Attorney General v Wilts United Dairies Ltd (1921) 37 TLR 884 ............................140“1
Attorney General (ex rel McWhirter) v Independent Broadcasting Authority
(1973) QB 628 .............................................................................................................514
Attorney General for Canada v Attorney General for Ontario [1937] AC 326............315
Attorney General for Canada v Hallet & Carey Ltd [1952] AC 427 .....................455, 464
Attorney General for Hong Kong v Ng Yuen Shiu [1983] 2 AC 629 ............................478
Attorney General for New South Wales v Trethowan [1932] AC 526, (1931) 44
CLR 394 ...................................................................................................................59, 60
Austin v Metropolitan Police Commissioner [2005] EWHC 480, [2005] HRLR 20
..............................................................................................................................796, 810
Ayr Harbour Trustees v Oswald (1883) 8 App Cas 623.................................................711

Bainbridge v Postmaster-General [1906] 1 KB 178.......................................................348
Barrett v En¬eld LBC [2001] 2 AC 550 ....................................................712, 713“14, 715
Bates v Lord Hailsham [1972] 1 WLR 1373...................................................................454
BBC v Johns [1965] Ch 32 ..............................................................................................346
Beatty v Gillbanks (1882) 9 QBD 308 ............................................798“800, 801, 802, 803
Begum v Tower Hamlets LBC [2003] UKHL5, [2003] 2 AC 430 .........112, 276, 684, 685
Belfast Corpn v OD Cars Ltd [1960] AC 490.................................................................149
Belgian Linguistic Case (No 2) (1968) 1 EHRR 252......................................................745
Bellinger v Bellinger [2003] 2 AC 467 ..................................................................64, 65, 66
Bibby v Chief Constable of Essex (2000) 164 JP 297.....................................................804
Bishop of Natal, Re (1864) 3 Moo PCCNS 115 .............................................................461
Blackburn v Attorney General [1971] 1 WLR 1037.........................................49, 469, 696
Black-Clawson International Ltd v Papierwerke Waldhof-Aschaffenburg AG
[1975] AC 591 .............................................................................................................128
Blair v Lochaber District Council 1995 SLT 407............................................................692
Blathwayt v Lord Cawley [1976] AC 397 .......................................................................271
Boddington v British Transport Police [1999] 2 AC 143.........................86, 148, 658, 661
Bowles v Bank of England [1913] 1 Ch 57.......................................................................43
Bowman v United Kingdom (1998) 26 EHRR 1 ...........................................................509
Brannigan and McBride v United Kingdom (1995) 17 EHRR 539 ..............................268
Brasserie du Pêcheur v Germany, C-46/93 [1996] ECR 1“1029...................................314

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