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consciousness, history, and political culture in early modern Europe (Baltimore and London,
1975), p. 12, and the ˜legal and religious conceptual structure™ identiWed in
J. C. D. Clark, The language of liberty 1660“1832 (Cambridge, 1994), p. 46; Hannaford,
Race, pp. 147“8, 173, 184. For jurisdictional notions of subjecthood, such as the French
category of regnicole, which preceded the rise of territorial nationality, see P. Sahlins,
Boundaries: the making of France and Spain in the Pyrenees (Berkeley and Los Angeles,
1989), esp. pp. 28“9, 54“9, 93, 113. For the importance of corporate privileges in the
˜retrograde patriotism™ of eighteenth-century elites, see Leighton, Catholicism in a Protes-
tant kingdom, pp. 26“7.
Index




Abel, 50, 57 anti-Semitism, 6, 20, 56, 72
Abercromby, Patrick, 134“5, 143 apocalyptic history, schemes of, 44,
Abraham, 20 111“12, 166, 214
Acosta, Jose de, 15, 39“40
´ Apollo, 21
Adam, 10, 16, 20, 30“2, 34, 47, 54, 57“8, Archdall, Mervyn, 171
287 Arianism, 44, 53
Adams, John, 272“3 Aristobulus, shadowy missionary to the
Adimo, the Wrst Indian, 20 Britons, 99
Aelfric, 107 Aristotle, 217
African-Americans, 24“5, 262 Ark, 14, 46, 57, 64
Agarde, Arthur, 99 Arnold, Matthew, 185
Albany Plan of Union, 271 Arthur, king, 84, 86, 89, 155“6
Alexander, W., 140 Ashkenaz, son of Gomer, 9, 61“3, 67, 188,
Alford, Michael, 109 197“8
Alfred, king of the West Saxons, 96, 112 Asia, 12, 14, 19, 40, 54, 227, 246“8, 289
Alison, Sir Archibald, 248 Athanasius, 42, 44, 275
Allix, Pierre, 90, 219“20 Atlantis, 14, 30
America, 12, 14, 19, 20, 22, 24“5, 39“40, Atwood, William, 88, 173
51, 57 Aubrey, John, 13
American colonies, 6, 24“5, 261“75 Augustine (Austin), St, of Canterbury,
see also United States of America 100“1, 103“6, 109“10, 112“13,
American Revolution, 267“75 116“17, 186
Amerindians, 14“15, 21“2, 24, 39, 49, Avebury, 70“1
179“80, 208 Aztecs, 21, 57, 179“80
ancient Britons, 32, 56, 59, 61, 64, 70“2,
75“122, 163, 170“1, 187, 190“200, Babel, Tower of, 9“10, 30“3, 39, 49“50,
205“9, 211, 257 54, 62, 64, 69, 197“8, 289“90
ancient constitutions, 75“181, 240“1, Bacon, Francis, 72, 75“6
287“8, 291 Bacon, Nathaniel, 87“8, 103“4, 121, 195,
Anderson, James, 60 231
Andrewes, Lancelot, Bishop of Baillie, Robert, 30
Winchester, 112 Bale, John, Bishop of Ossory, 59, 112
Andrews, John, 235 Baluze, Etienne, 238
Andros, Sir Edmund, 264 Bancroft, Richard, Archbishop of
Anglicisation, 263“5, 282“3 Canterbury, 112
Anglo-Britishness, provincial, 81“2, Banier, Antoine, 20“1, 191
231“3, 250“86 Baronius, Cesare, Cardinal, 109, 112
Annesley, Arthur, 169 Barrow, Isaac, 117
Annius of Viterbo, 28, 59 Basire, Isaac, 100“1, 116, 120
anti-Catholicism, 6, 205“6, 212“13, 234, Baxter, John, 277
265, 285, 290 Baxter, Richard, 119
Antichrist, 111“12, 290 Bayle, Pierre, 22

292
Index 293
Beattie, James, 52, 232 Bryant, Jacob, 53“4, 57, 68, 71
Beaumont, John, 41 Buchanan, David, 129
Bede, 100, 110“11, 114, 204 Buchanan, George, 125“7, 129, 131“2,
Bedell, William, Bishop of Kilmore, 167 141, 143“4, 156, 196, 279
Bedford, Arthur, 36, 41 Buckland, William, 38
Belgae, 170“1, 198, 202 BuVon, Georges-Louis Leclerc, comte de,
Bellarmine, Robert, Cardinal, 114, 206 23, 46
Berkeley, George Monck, 209 Bull, George, Bishop of St David™s, 237
Bernier, Francois, 23
¸ Bullet, Jean-Baptiste, 31
Beveridge, William, Bishop of St Asaph, Burgess, Thomas, Bishop of St David™s,
116 121
Bible, authority of, 10“13, 16“17, 26, Burgh, James, 97, 245, 267
28“9, 44“5, 52 Burke, Edmund, 82, 258
Bingham, Joseph, 101, 115, 117“18, 238 Burnet, Thomas, 45
Blackstone, Sir William, 80, 96, 102, 217, Burrow, Reuben, 63
275 Bute, third earl of, see Stuart, John
Blackwell, I. A., 209“10 Butler, James, Catholic Archbishop of
Blackwell, Thomas, 49 Cashel, 174
Blackwood, Adam, 126
Blair, John, 36 Caesar, Julius, 84, 92, 189“90
Blake, William, 71“2 Cain, 50, 57
Bland, Richard, 268 Caius, John, 59
Blondel, David, 119, 172 Calderwood, David, 129“30
Blount, Thomas, 34, 189 Calgacus, 143
Blumenbach, Johann Friedrich, 24 Calmet, Augustin, 30
Bochart, Samuel, 21, 31, 41, 44, 65“6, 69 Camden, William, 86, 99, 215, 217, 222
Boece, Hector, 125, 129, 136, 143“4 Cameron, Ewen, 131
Bolingbroke, see St John, Henry Campbell, Archibald, 50
Boodh (Buddha), 63 Campbell, Dugald, 131
Bopp, Franz, 31 Campbell, John, 37
Bossuet, Jacques Benigne, Bishop of
´ Campbell, Thomas, 176
Meaux, 36“7 Campion, Edmund, 153
Boswell, James, 282 Care, Henry, 234“5
Boulainvilliers, Henri, comte de, 82, 179, Carte, Thomas, 68, 95, 101, 106, 195,
240“2 197, 206
Boulanger, Nicolas-Antoine, 21 Cartwright, John, 96, 277
Boulter, Hugh, Archbishop of Armagh, Casaubon, Isaac, 112
150 Catholicism, Irish, 151“62, 174
boundary thesis, 5, 211, 288 Catti, supposed Germanic ancestors of the
Bower, Archibald, 37 Macphersons, 201
Boxhorn, Marcus, 192 Caucasian race, emergence of concept of,
Brady, Robert, 79, 82, 88“93, 95, 239, 24
244 Cave, William, 100“1, 117“18, 236
Brahma, 20, 55 Celts, 1, 28, 30“2, 51, 54, 57, 61“2, 66“7,
Brandenburg, 235 72, 81, 87, 92, 185“210, 215
Brerewood, Edward, 39, 101, 118 pan-Celticism, 62, 185
Britishness, 6, 229“33, 250“86 Chalmers, George, 51“2, 145
Britons, ancient, see ancient Britons Chateaubriand, Francois Rene, vicomte
¸ ´
Broca, Paul, 27 de, 26
Brooke, Charlotte, 175 China and Chinese, 15, 17, 19“20, 41, 47,
Brooke, Henry, 174“5, 229“30, 258 57, 246
Brosses, Charles de, 20 chronology, universal, 10, 17, 19, 23,
Broughton, Richard, 109“10 34“8, 44, 47, 54, 66
Brown, John, moralist, 235 church establishments,
Brown, John, of Wamphray, 129, 142 Church of England, 70“1, 99“122, 128,
Browne, Sir Thomas, 39, 41 173, 236“9, 275
294 Index
church establishments, (cont.) Solemn League and Covenant (1643),
Church of Ireland, 147, 150, 162“73, 136
176, 181 Cox, Richard, 169“71, 178
Church of Scotland, 119“20, 126“31, Craig, Thomas, of Riccarton, 144, 247,
136“9 280
Cimbri, Germanic tribe rich in cranial measurement, 26“7
pseudo-etymological associations, 31, Cratilinth, legendary king of the Scots, 129
62“4, 69, 192“4, 197“8, 202 Creation, 18“19, 35, 37
Ciocal, aboriginal Irish Hamite, 65 creole identities, Spanish-American,
circumcision, 21 179“80
civil religion, 130, 136“9, 158“62, 178 Cressy, Hugh, Serenus, 109
civility, ancient Irish, 157“62, 178 Crouch, Nathaniel, 99, 103, 171, 188
Clarke, Samuel, 53 Cudworth, Ralph, 42, 54
Clavigero, Francisco Xavier, 179“80 Culdees, 119“20, 129“31, 137
Clayton, Robert, Bishop of Clogher, 41, Cumberland, Richard, Bishop of
59“60 Peterborough, 45“6
Clement XIV, Pope, 174 Cuming, Patrick, 137
Cluverius, Philip (Cluver), 30, 61, 191,
¨ Curry, John, 158“9
193, 207, 209“10, 222 Cuvier, Georges, 26, 38
Coke, Sir Edward, 83“4, 86, 101, 214
Collier, Jeremy, non-juring bishop, 99, Dalgarno, George, 33
106, 108, 114, 117“18 Dalriada, matter of, 123“45, 187, 279“80,
colonial patriotisms, 6, 162“81, 250“75, 291
289 Dalrymple, Sir David, Lord Hailes, 281
Columba, St, 123, 128 Dalrymple, Sir James, 130
Comber, Thomas, 118 Dalrymple, Sir John, of Cranstoun, 95,
Comerford, Thomas, 157 232, 244, 281
common law, 75“6, 78“80, 83“6, 89, 92, Damnonii, 170“1
94“6, 195, 199, 262, 266, 273“5, Darcy, Patrick, 150, 154, 168, 253
278“9, 281“2 Davenant, Charles, 215, 226, 237
Common Sense philosophy, 52 Davies, Edward, 71
conciliarism, Anglican, 116“18, 238 Davies, Sir John, 146, 153, 161
Confederate Catholics, 154“5 De Lolme, Jean-Louis, 220, 243
confessional legitimacy, 99“122, 128“30, Defoe, Daniel, 76
137, 147“8, 150, 161“8, 171“3, 181, Deluc, Jean-Andre, 38
´
287 Deluge, 14, 16, 18, 20“2, 26, 38, 40“1,
conquest theory, 78“80, 82, 86, 88“90, 96, 45“6, 53“4, 57, 63, 65
133, 143, 155, 168“70, 220, 267“8, Dempster, Thomas, 157, 186
288 Denmark and Danes, 31, 221, 225“6, 228,
consensus gentium, 13, 22, 42, 47, 53“5, 58 232, 235, 259“60, 266
Constantine, 100 Descartes, Rene, 39“40
´
constitutions, ancient, see ancient Desmarets, Samuel, 16
constitutions Dethick, Sir William, 99
Cooke, William, 71 Dickinson, John, 262
Cooper, Alexander, 35 Dinoth, Abbot of Bangor, 101
Cotton, Sir Robert, 99“100, 217 Doddridge, Sir John, 83
councils and synods, Domitian, 129
Arles (314), 117 Domville, William, 168
Ephesus (431), 117 Donald I, legendary king of Scots, 119
Nicaea (325), 116“17 Dopping, Anthony, Bishop of Meath, 159,
Sardica (343“4), 117“18 170, 255
Whitby (664), 130 double doctrine, 42, 48, 206, 289
Counter-Reformation, 109“10, 152“3 Drayton, Michael, 85, 97
Couriltai, see Kouriltai Druids, 56, 67, 70“2, 96, 122, 161, 187,
Covenants, Scottish, and Covenanting 202, 205“9
tradition, 128, 130, 136, 283 Du Pin, Louis Ellies, 237“8
Index 295
Dubos, Jean-Baptiste, 240“1 Fletcher, Andrew, of Saltoun, 230“1, 280
Dugdale, Sir William, 103 Flood, Henry, 176, 260
Dunwallo Molmutius, legendary Fohi, Chinese emperor-deity, 20, 48
law-giving king of the Britons, 83, 168 Fontenelle, Bernard de, 20
Fordun, John of, 124, 279
Echard, Laurence, 171 Forman, Charles, 242
Edward the Confessor, 85, 94 Fortescue, Sir John, 83“5, 90
Confessor™s Laws, 85“6 Fougeret de Montbron, 234
Edward II, king of England, 85 Four Masters, 157
Edwards, Charles, 69 Fourmont, Etienne, 20“1
Egypt, 17“19, 36, 44, 55 Foxe, John, 100“1, 111“12
Eleutherius, Pope, 114 France and French, 3, 29, 31, 143,
Eliot, George, 52 211“12, 214, 221, 233“45, 248“9,
elite patriotisms, 82, 162, 169“70, 178“9, 265, 282“3, 291
240, 256, 291 Francophobia, 212“13, 229, 231, 233“7,
Elstob, Elizabeth, 222“3 265, 282“3, 291
England and English identity, 59“64, Franks, 67, 78, 85, 179, 211, 219, 228,
68“72, 75“122, 186“7, 194“200, 240“5, 247“9
211“29, 233“45, 248“51, 257, 266“7, Free, John, 235
270, 277, 285“6, 289 French Revolution, 3, 277
Enlightenment, Fuller, Thomas, 32, 99“102, 115, 120
English, 35“6, 42“5, 48“9, 52
French, 20“1, 23 Gaels, Irish, see Milesians; Irish identities,
Irish, 158“62, 172“6, 178 Old Irish
Scottish, 37“8, 49“52, 56, 81, 94, 139, Gaels, Scottish, 47, 123“45, 185“7, 279,
145, 227, 231“3, 243“4, 247“8, 283, 291
250“1, 279“86 Gale, Theophilus, 13, 41, 70, 205
Ethelbert, king of the South Saxons, 105 Gallicanism, 106, 116“17, 174, 236“9
˜ethnic™, early modern deWnitions of, 11, Gaul and Gauls, 30, 64, 66“7, 78, 84“5,
13, 34“5 91“2, 187, 189“94, 196“8, 204,
˜ethnic theology™, deWned, 9“12 207“8, 227, 236“7, 243, 245
Euhemerus of Messina and euhemerism, Geddes, Michael, 104“5, 118
13, 21, 48, 50, 62, 66“8, 289 Genesis, book of, 9“14, 16“19, 27“65, 72,
Eurasia and Eurasian identity, 15, 31, 191, 193, 197, 247, 287, 289“90
246“8, 289“90 Genghis Khan, 248
Evans, Theophilus, 68 gentiles, 9, 13, 17, 19, 22
gentry patriotisms, see elite patriotisms
Faber, George Stanley, 57“8, 71 GeoVrey of Monmouth and Galfridian
Fall of man, 16, 29, 40, 58 tradition, 59, 61, 83“4, 89, 91, 97,
Febronius (Johann Nikolaus von 144, 155, 187
Hontheim), 174 George III, 267, 270, 272, 284
Fenelon, Francois de Salignac de la
´ ¸ Gerbais, Jean, 238
Mothe, Archbishop of Cambrai, 49 Germans and Germanic stock, 30, 32,
Fergus MacFerquhard, legendary founding 61“4, 68“9, 80“1, 91“2, 187“204,
king of the Scots monarchy, 125“6, 207“9, 212, 215, 217, 219, 221“2,
131“2, 134“5, 142 227“8, 232, 275, 278
Feritharis, legendary king of the Scots, Gibbon, Edward, 9“10, 52, 76, 187, 200,
125, 142 228“9, 246
feudalism and feudal law, 78, 81, 88“9, Gibson, Edmund, Bishop of London,
93“5, 97, 134, 141“2, 198“9, 213, 108
218, 223, 230, 232, 243“4, 247“8, Gildas, 100
273“4, 280“1, 285“6 Gille (Gillebert), 166
Filmer, Sir Robert, 43, 132 Giraldus Cambrensis (Gerald of
Fir-Bolg, 64, 147, 152“3, 170, 289 Wales/Barry), 157
Fitzsimon, Henry, 164 Glanville, Ranulph de, 282
Flemish, 31“2, 144“5, 203 Glastonbury, 110, 114
296 Index
Glorious Revolution, 81, 90, 252, 263“5, Hengist and Horsa, 90, 112, 272, 274
270, 285 Henry I, king of England, 85, 101, 120
Revolution principles, 92, 95, 131“4, Henry II, king of England, 156, 169, 253
160, 241 Henry III, king of England, 88, 92
Gobineau, Joseph-Arthur, comte de, 27 Henry VI, king of England, 268
Goddard, Thomas, 228 Henry VII, king of England, 81, 224
Godwin, Francis, Bishop of Hereford, 99 Henry VIII, king of England, 101, 116,
Goguet, Antoine-Yves, 50 121, 224
Goldsmith, Oliver, 46, 95, 207, 227, 258 Henry, Robert, 70, 206
Gomer, son of Japhet, and Gomerites, 9, Herbert, Edward, Wrst Baron Herbert of
32, 51, 59, 61“2, 64, 66“70, 193“4, Cherbury, 13, 34
197“8, 206 Herbert, J. R., 122
Goodall, Walter, 141 Herder, Johann Gottfried, 2, 26, 203
Gordon, Alexander, 133 Heron, Robert, 51, 281
Gordon, Thomas, 266 Hervey, John, Baron Hervey of Ickworth,
Goropius Becanus, Johannes, 31“2 93
Goths and Gothicism, 29“30, 61“4, Heylin, Peter, 59, 194
75“98, 104, 141“2, 144“5, 170, Hickes, George, non-juring bishop, 108,
198“9, 202“4, 207“9, 211“86, 290“1 196
Grant, James, 203 Hickes, William, 270
Grattan, Henry, 260“1 Hindu deities, 20, 51, 55
Gray, Thomas, 191, 208“9, 222 Hobbes, Thomas, 39
Great Awakening, 262, 271“2 Hody, Humphrey, 82, 244
Gregory, king of Scotland, 126, 156 Hogarth, William, 235
Gregory, Pope, the Great, 100, 104“5, Holloway, Benjamin, 30
110, 111 Holman Hunt, William, 122
Grenville, George, 269 Home, Henry, Lord Kames, 49, 56, 281
Grimston, Edward, 39 Horn, Georg, 15
Grotius, Hugo, 12, 15, 43 Hotman, Francois, 85, 218, 220, 242, 258
¸
Gurdon, Thornhaugh, 92“3, 245 Howard, Philip, 60
Gypsies, 3, 39 Hoyle, Joshua, 164

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