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. 2
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Rennes, Bibl. mun. de Rennes, ms 15820.
Cart. St-Sulpice P. Anger (ed.), Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Saint-Sulpice-la-
Ã
Foret, Rennes, 1911.
Cart. St-Victeur au A. Bertrand de Brousillon (ed.), Cartulaire de Saint-

Mans Victeur au Mans, prieure de l'abbaye du Mont Saint-Michel
(999±1400), Paris, 1895.
Charters J. Everard and M. Jones (eds.), The Charters of Duchess
Constance of Brittany and her family, 1171±1221, Wood-
bridge, Suffolk, 1999.
`Communes petitiones A. de la Borderie (ed.), `Nouveau recueil d'actes

Britonum' inedits des ducs de Bretagne', BSAIV 21 (1892),
97±134 at 97±105.
Á
`Coutume de E. J. Tardif (ed.), Coutumiers de Normandie, premiere
Á
Normandie' partie: `Le Tres Ancien Coutumier de Normandie'.
Rouen, 1881.
`Coutume de Akehurst, F.R.P. (trans.), The Etablissements de Saint

Touraine-Anjou' Louis: Thirteenth-Century Law Texts from Tours, Orleans
and Paris, Philadelphia, 1996.
`De principis instructione' G. F. Werner (ed.), Giraldi Cambrensis Opera, VIII, De
Principis Instructione Liber, Rolls Series, London, 1891.
DRF `De Reliquiarum Furto: De corpore Sancti Petroci
furato et restituto', in P. Grosjean, `Vies et miracles de
S. Petroc; i. Le dossier du manuscrit de Gotha',
Analecta Bollandiana 74 (1956), 131±88 at 174±88.
Published in English translation by G. H. Doble,
`The Relics of Saint Petroc', Antiquity 13 (1939),
403±15.
C. T. Clay (ed.), Early Yorkshire Charters, IV and V: The
EYC
Honour of Richmond, Yorkshire Arch±ological Society
Record Series, Extra Series,Wake®eld, 1935 and 1936.
à ‚
Enquete J. Allenou (ed.), Histoire feodale des marais, territoire et
Ã
‚ ‚
eglise de Dol: Enquete par tourbe ordonee par Henri II, roi
d'Angleterre, La Bretagne et les pays celtiques, xiii, Paris,
1917.

xii
List of abbreviations

Gallia Christiana B. Haureau (ed.), Gallia Christiana in provincias ecclesias-
ticas distributa . . . , xiv, `Provincia Turonensi', Paris,
1856.
GC W. Stubbs (ed.), The historical works of Gervase of
Canterbury, Rolls Series, London, 1879.
Gesta W. Stubbs (ed.), Gesta Regis Henrici Secundi Benedicti
abbatis: The chronicle of the reigns of Henry II and Richard
I, AD 1169±1192, known commonly under the name of
Benedict of Peterborough, 2 vols., Rolls Series, London,
1867.

Hist. Quimperle R.-F. Le Men (ed.), Histoire de l'abbaye de Sainte-Croix

de Quimperle . . . par Dom Placide Le Duc, Quim-

perle,1863.
`Inquisitio . . . de A. de la Borderie (ed.), `Nouveau recueil d'actes

Avaugour' inedits des ducs de Bretagne', BSAIV 21 (1892),
97±134 at 106±21.
Itinerary R. W. Eyton, Court, household and itinerary of King
Henry II, London, 1878.
Monasticon J. Caley, H. Ellis, and B. Bandinel (eds.), Monasticon
Anglicanum: A history of the abbeys and other monasteries
. . . in England and Wales . . . originally published in
Latin by Sir William Dugdale, Kt., 6 vols. (vol. vi in 3
parts), London, 1817±30, reprinted Farnborough,
Hants., 1970.
Le Baud, Histoire de C. d'Hozier (ed.), Histoire de Bretagne, avec les chroniques

Bretagne des maisons de Vitre et de Laval par Pierre Le Baud, Paris,
1638.
‚ ‚‚ ‚
MSHAB Memoires de la Societe d'Histoire et d'Archeologie de
Bretagne.
PL J. P. Migne (ed.), Patrologiae Cursus Completus, series
Latina, 221 vols., Paris, 1844±64.
‚ Á
Preuves H. Morice (ed.), Memoires pour servir des preuves a

l'histoire ecclesiastique et civile de Bretagne, vol. i, Paris
1742, reprinted Farnborough, Hants. 1968.
Pipe Roll . . . Henry II The Great Rolls of the Pipe of the reign of King Henry the
second, AD 1156 to 1189, Pipe Roll Society, 30 vols.
London, 1884±1925.
RD W. Stubbs (ed.), Radul® de Diceto: Ymagines Histor-
iarum, 2 vols., Rolls Series, London, 1876.
RH W. Stubbs (ed.), Chronica Magistri Rogeri de Hoveden, 4
vols., Rolls Series, London, 1868±71.

RHD [Nouvelle] Revue historique de droit francais et etranger.
Ë
RHF Recueil des Historiens des Gaules et de la France . . .
nouvelle edition, ed. L. Delisle, xii-xviii. Paris,
1867±79.

xiii
List of abbreviations
Rigord Rigord, `Gesta Philippi Augusti', in H. F. Delaborde
(ed.), êuvres de Rigord et de Guillaume le Breton,
historiens de Philippe-Auguste, 2 vols, Paris, 1882 and
1885, i. `Tome premier, Chroniques de Rigord et de
Guillaume le Breton', pp. 1±167.
Rot. Chart. T. D. Hardy (ed.), Rotuli Chartarum in Turri Londinensi
asservati, London, 1837.
Rot. Liberate T. D. Hardy (ed.), Rotuli de Liberate ac de Misis et de
Praestitis regnante Johanne, London, 1844.
Rot. Litt. Pat. T. D. Hardy (ed.), Rotuli litterarum patentium in Turri
Londinensi asservati, i, London, 1835.
Rot. Norm. T. D. Hardy (ed.), Rotuli Normanniae in Turri Londi-
nensi asservati, i. 1199±1216, London, 1837.

RT L. Delisle (ed.), Chronique de Robert de Torigni, abbe du
Mont Saint-Michel, suivie de divers opuscules historiques de
Ã
cet Auteur et de plusieurs Religieux de la meme Abbaye, 2
vols., Rouen, 1872 and 1873.
RW H. G. Hewlett (ed.), Rogeri de Wendover: Liber qui
dicitur Flores Historiarum: ab MCLIV annoque Henrici
Anglorum Regis Secundi primo, Rolls Series, London,
1886.
Á
TAC M. Planiol (ed.), La Tres Ancienne Coutume de Bretagne,
Rennes, 1896.
VCH The Victoria history of the counties of England.
WB William the Breton, `Gesta Philippi Augusti', in H.-F.
Delaborde (ed.), êuvres de Rigord et de Guillaume le
Breton, historiens de Philippe-Auguste, 2 vols., Paris 1882
and 1885, i. `Tome premier, Chroniques de Rigord et
de Guillaume le Breton', pp. 168±333.
WN William of Newburgh, `Historia rerum Anglicarum',
in R. Howlett (ed.), Chronicles of the reigns of Stephen,
Henry II and Richard I, i, Rolls Series, London, 1884.




xiv
Figure 1 Genealogy of the dukes of Brittany, 1066±1203
Map 1 The principal political divisions of Brittany, c.1066
Place names in bold type are those acquired by Duke Geoffrey.

Map 2 Ducal domains, c.1066±1186
INTRODUCTION




It is well-known that Henry II, king of England, duke of Normandy
and Aquitaine and count of Anjou, added the duchy of Brittany to the
`Angevin empire' and granted it to his third son, Geoffrey. As the
necessary background to the con¯ict between the young Arthur of
Brittany, Geoffrey's posthumous son, and his uncle King John over the
succession to Richard the Lionheart, this is about as much as British
historians have felt they needed to know about Brittany in the twelfth
century.
The history of the Angevin regime in Brittany has received only
scant attention from historians. This neglect has two causes; ®rstly, the
relative scarcity of contemporary sources, which makes the history of
Brittany in this period quite obscure, and secondly, the sentiments of
historians. Both British and French historians tend to overlook Brittany
as peripheral, backward, and, because of its Celtic history, different and
atypical. Whether the subject is the Anglo-Norman realm, the Angevin
empire or the Capetian monarchy, Brittany appears marginal, both
geographically and culturally.
Breton historians, for their part, have tended to avoid the period of
Angevin rule, passing over it as a shameful episode of foreign, and
worse, `English', domination best overlooked. When the topic cannot
be avoided, they have tended to emphasise baronial rebellion against
Henry II, characterising it as the heroic resistance of Breton patriots.1 In

the otherwise excellent A. Chedeville and N.-Y. Tonnerre, La Bretagne
Among the more impartial Breton writers on this subject are C. de la Lande de Calan, B. A.
1


Pocquet du Haut-Jusse and N.-Y. Tonnerre. Honourable mention must be made also of J. Le
Patourel, whose Channel Islands heritage enabled him to take a uniquely balanced view of
Anglo-Norman and Breton affairs (see Bibliography). I am extremely grateful to Professor Sir
James Holt for permitting me to consult in addition the following works from the unpublished
papers of Professor Le Patourel: `Plantagenet rule in Brittany to 1205' (1978) and `Guillaume
‚‚ ‚
Filshamon, premier senechal de Bretagne (1171±2)', paper delivered at 15th `Journees d'Histoire
du Droit des Pays de l'Ouest', Dinard, May 1978.

1
Brittany and the Angevins
‚ Á
feodale, xie-xiiie siecle (Rennes, 1987) the subject of `La mainmise
progressive d'Henri II sur la Bretagne' is dealt with in two pages
(pp. 86±8), while ®ve pages are devoted to baronial resistance (`Un

pouvoir dif®cilement accepte', pp. 88±93). Although these attitudes are
understandable, the central argument of this book is that they are
unjusti®ed.
Furthermore, the effect of Brittany's near-absence from the historio-
graphy on the Angevin empire has been positively misleading. The
politics of Henry II and his sons cannot be understood without regard
to the time and resources they invested in acquiring and maintaining
lordship over Brittany. In particular, the political career of Henry II's
son Geoffrey is incomprehensible, an apparently irrational series of plots
and betrayals, if one ignores his career as duke of Brittany. Without an
understanding of the institutions of Breton government before Angevin
rule, it is impossible to judge whether Henry II and Geoffrey deliber-
ately introduced Anglo-Norman or Angevin institutions in Brittany.
In contrast with the dearth of material on Brittany under the
Angevins, the historiography of Brittany in the earlier middle ages, even
up to the late eleventh century, is thriving. Two monographs have
recently appeared on Carolingian Brittany.2 At the same time, several
Breton historians have focused their research on Brittany in the tenth
and eleventh centuries, and especially on the subject of the formation of
the nobility.3 The result of this work is to emphasise continuity in
Breton society through the ninth and tenth centuries.
The twelfth century represents something of a lacuna in the historio-
graphy of Brittany. There is no monograph on the subject of Brittany in
the eleventh and twelfth centuries, and few published articles. Recent
scholarship resumes at the end of the Angevin period, with two articles
on the life and reign of Duchess Constance.4
This lacuna can be explained, at least in part, because the twelfth
century falls in between two periods. It is too late for the period of the
formation of the post-Carolingian feudal society, which so interests the
current school of Breton medieval historians, and too early for the

J. M. H. Smith, Province and Empire: Carolingian Brittany, Cambridge, 1992, and W. Davies, Small
2

Worlds: The village community in early medieval Brittany, London, 1988.

The doyen of this subject is Hubert Guillotel, along with A. Chedeville, N.-Y. Tonnerre,
3

J. Quaghebeur, M. Brand'honneur and J.-C. Meuret, to which may be added the work of Dr
Katherine Keats-Rohan on the cross-channel interests of Breton families (see Bibliography).
‚ ‚ Ã
Y. Hillion, `La Bretagne et la rivalite Capetiens-Plantagenets, un exemple: la duchesse Constance
4

(1186±1202)', AB 92 (1985), 111±44; M. Jones, `La vie familiale de la duchesse Constance: Le
temoignage des chartes', in G. Le Menn and J.-Y. Le Moing (eds.), Bretagne et pays celtiques:
‚ Á ‚
Langues, histoire, civilisation. Melanges offerts a la memoire de Leon Fleuriot, 1923±1987, Saint-Brieuc
and Rennes, 1992, 349±60.

2
Introduction
`golden age' of ducal Brittany. This book aims to go some way towards
bridging the gap. Although there has been some work on Brittany and
the Angevins, no work has appeared on Angevin rule in Brittany in its
own right, rather than for the purposes of comparison with other
provinces or periods.5
Primary sources for Brittany in the twelfth century are scarce. The
scarcity is particularly conspicuous in literary sources. In contrast with
the eleventh-century `chronicles' of Nantes and Dol, no Breton
chronicles written in the twelfth century have survived, only monastic
annals.6 Breton historiography was revived in the late middle ages, but
the late `chronicles' or `histories' of Pierre Le Baud, Alain Bouchard and
the `anonymous of Saint-Brieuc' obviously are not reliable as primary
sources for the twelfth century.7 Yet it has recently been argued that
these authors were serious scholars, albeit politically motivated, and,
more importantly, they had privileged access to ducal and baronial
archives and drew on documentary sources which are no longer
extant.8 In this study, especially in Chapter 6, I have used Le Baud's

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. 2
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