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ans 15:49-63 (1995).
10. Victor Thorn, “Who Controls the 5. “Populism,” Wikipedia (April 2006).
Federal Reserve System?”, rense.com
6. Lawrence Goodwin, paraphrased by
(May 9, 2002).
Patricia Limerick in “The Future of
Populist Politics” (speech at Colo-
11. Christopher Mark, “The Grand
rado College, February 6, 1999).
Deception: The Theft of America and

489
Endnotes

7. Gretchen Ritter, Goldbugs and 17. Robert Blumen, “The Organization
Greenbacks: The Antimonopoly of Debt into Currency: On the
Tradition and the Politics of Finance Monetary Thought of Charles Holt
in America, 1865-1896 (Cambridge: Carroll,” mises.org (April 27, 2006).
Cambridge University Press, 1997), 18. John Ascher, “Remembering
pages 8-9; Carlos Schwantes, Coxey™s President William McKinley,”
Army (Moscow, Idaho: University of schillerinstitute.org (September
Idaho Press, 1994); Neander97™s 2001); Marcia Merry-Baker, et al.,
Historical Trivia, “Militia Threatens “Henry Carey and William
March on Washington!”, McKinley,” American Almanac
geocities.com/Athens/Forum/3807/ (1995), Sherman Skolnick, “What
features/hogan.html. Happened to America™s
8. Texas State Historical Association, Goldenboy?”, skolnickreport.com.
“Greenback Party,” The Handbook of 19. Michael Rowbothan, Goodbye
Texas Online (December 4, 2002). America! Globalisation, Debt and the
9. Official Proceedings of the Demo- Dollar Empire (Charlbury, England:
cratic National Convention Held in Jon Carpenter Publishing, 2000),
Chicago, Illinois, July 7, 8, 9, 10, and page 104.
11, 1896 (Logansport, Indiana, 1896),
Chapter 2
pages 226“234, reprinted in The
Annals of America, Vol. 12, 1895“
1. Paul Sperry, “Greenspan: Financial
1904: Populism, Imperialism, and
Wizard of Oz,” WorldNetDaily
Reform (Chicago: Encyclopedia
(2001).
Britannica, Inc., 1968), pages 100“105.
2. Ibid.
10. Jack Weatherford, The History of
3. Federal Reserve Bank of New York,
Money: From Sandstone to
“I Bet You Thought,” page 186,
Cyberspace (New York: Three Rivers
quoted in G. Edward Griffin, The
Press, 1998), page 176; John Corbally,
Creature from Jekyll Island
“The Cross of Gold and the Wizard (Westlake Village, California:
of Oz,” The History of Money, http:/ American Media, 1998), page 19.
/home.earthlink.net/˜jcorbally/
4. See Lewis v. United States, 680 F.2d
eng218/rcross.html; Hugh Downs, 1239 (1982), in which a federal circuit
“Odder than Oz,” monetary.org court so held.
(1998).
5. Wright Patman, A Primer on Money
11. Wayne Slater interviewed in “Karl (Government Printing Office,
Rove “ the Architect,” Frontline, prepared for the Sub-committee on
www.pbs.org (April 12, 2005). Domestic Finance, House of Repre-
sentatives, Committee on Banking
12. D. Parker, op. cit.
and Currency, Eighty-Eighth
13. John Algeo, “A Notable Theoso- Congress, 2nd session, 1964).
phist: L. Frank Baum,” Journal of the
6. Quoted in Archibald Roberts, The
Theosophical Society in America Most Secret Science (Fort Collins,
(September 4, 1892). Colorado: Betsy Ross Press, 1984).
14. T. Ziaukas, op. cit. 7. Benjamin Gisin, “The Mechanics of
Money: A Danger to Civilization,”
15. J. Corbally, op. cit.; D. Parker, op. cit.
American Monetary Institute
16. Murray Rothbard, Wall Street, Banks,
Presentation (Chicago, September
and American Foreign Policy (Center
2006).
for Libertarian Studies, 1995).

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8. “United States Mint 2004 Annual performance, . . . the entire contract is
Report,” usmint.gov. void.”
9. “Money Supply,” Wikipedia 18. Quoted in Stephen Zarlenga, The
(October 2006). Lost Science of Money (Valatie, New
York: American Monetary Institute,
10. Chicago Federal Reserve, Modern
2002), pages 345-46.
Money Mechanics (1963), originally
produced and distributed free by the 19. Bernard Lietaer, interviewed by
Public Information Center of the Sarah van Gelder in “Beyond Greed
Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, and Scarcity,” Yes! Magazine (Spring
Chicago, Illinois, now available on 1997).
the Internet at http://landru.i-link- 20. “Fed Injects $41 Billion in Liquid-
2.net/monques/mmm2.html. ity,” Wall Street Journal (November
11. Chicago Federal Reserve, op. cit.; 2, 2007); Ellen Brown, “Market
Patrick Carmack, Bill Still, The Meltdown,” webofdebt.com/
Money Masters: How International articles/market-meltdown.php
Bankers Gained Control of America (September 3, 2007); E. Brown, “Bank
(video, 1998), text at http:// Run or Stealth Bailout,” ibid.
users.cyberone.com.au/myers/ (September 29, 2007); Nouriel
money-masters.html; William Roubini, “The Stealth Public Bailout
Bramley, The Gods of Eden (New of Reckless ˜Countrywide™: Privatiz-
York: Avon Books, 1989), pages 214- ing Profits and Socializing Losses,”
29. Nouriel Roubini™s Global Monitor
(November 27, 2007); Mike Whitney,
12. Robert de Fremery, “Arguments Are
“The Central Bank: Silent Partner in
Fallacious for World Central Bank,”
the Bloodletting,” Dissident Voice
The Commercial and Financial
Chronicle (September 26, 1963), (December 8, 2007).
citing E. Groseclose, Money: The 21. Quoted in G. E. Griffin, The Creature
Human Conflict, pages 178-79.
from Jekyll Island (Westlake Village,
13. “A Landmark Decision,” The Daily California: American Media, 1998),
Eagle (Montgomery, Minnesota: pages 187-88.
February 7, 1969), reprinted in part in
22. Mark Stencel, “Budget Background:
P. Cook, “What Banks Don™t Want
A Decade of Black Ink?”,
You to Know,” www9.pair.com/
washingtonpost.com (February 2,
xpoez/money/cook (June 3, 1993).
2000); “The Presidential Facts Page,”
14. See Bill Drexler, “The Mahoney The History Ring, scican.net/
Credit River Decision,” ˜dkochan; Robert Samuelson,
worldnewsstand.net/money/ “Rising Federal Debt Not Necessar-
mahoney-introduction.html. ily Negative,” Washington Post
15. G. Edward Griffin, “Debt-cancella- Writers Group, in the Baton Rouge
tion Programs,” Advocate (October 9, 2003).
freedomforceinternational.org
23. John K. Galbraith, Money: Whence It
(December 18, 2003).
Came, Where It Went (Boston:
16. William Hummel, “Non-banks Houghton Mifflin, 1975), page 90.
Versus Banks,” in Money: What It Is,
24. Erik Sorensen, “Economic Never-
How It Works, http://wfhummel.net
never Land,” republicons.org
(May 17, 2002).
(January 17, 2003). (Assume 3 feet
17. See, e.g., California Civil Code
per step. One mile = 5,280 feet,
Section 1598: “Where a contract . . .
multiplied by 4 billion miles = 21,120
[is] wholly impossible of

491
Endnotes

billion feet, divided by 3 feet per step 9. Quoted in C. Binderup, op. cit.
= 7,040 billion, or 7.04 trillion, steps.) 10. Alexander Del Mar, History of
25. George Humphrey, Common Sense Monetary Systems (1895), quoted in
(Austin, Texas: George Humphrey, S. Zarlenga, op. cit., page 378.
1998), page 5. 11. S. Zarlenga, op. cit., pages 377-78.
26. “Today™s Boxscore,” nationaldebt.org 12. Ibid., pages 385-86.
($25,725 debt per capita as of January
13. J. W. Schuckers, Finances and Paper
7, 2005).
Money of the Revolutionary War
27. See “Confessions of a White House (Philadephia: J. Campbell & Son,
Insider”, Time Magazine, time.com 1874), quoted in S. Zarlenga, op. cit.,
(January 19, 2004) (Vice President pages 380-81.
Dick Cheney citing President Ronald
14. S. Zarlenga, op. cit., pages 377-87;
Reagan for the proposition that
Carmack and Still, The Money
“deficits don™t matter”).
Masters, op. cit.
28. See Chapter 29.
Chapter 4
Chapter 3
1. Sheldon Emry, Billions for the
1. Jason Goodwin, Greenback (New Bankers, Debts for the People
York: Henry Holt & Co., LLC, 2003), (Phoenix, Arizona: America™s
page 40. Promise Broadcast, 1984), reproduced
at libertydollar.org.
2. H. A. Scott Trask, “Did the Framers
Favor Hard Money?”, lcwatch.com/
2. James Newell, “Currency and
special69.shtml (2002).
Finance in the 18th Century,” The
3. J. Goodwin, op. cit., page 43. Continental Line (Fall 1997).
4. Ibid.; Jack Weatherford, The History
3. Alexander Hamilton, Works, Part II,
of Money (New York: Crown
page 271, quoted in G. Edward
Publishers, Inc., 1997), pages 132-35.
Griffin, The Creature from Jekyll
5. Alvin Rabushka, “Representation
Island (Westlake Village, California:
Without Taxation,” Policy Review
American Media, 1998), page 316.
(Hoover Institution, Stanford
University, August/September 2002). 4. Jason Goodwin, Greenback (New
6. Quoted by Congressman Charles York: Henry Holt & Co., LLC, 2003),
Binderup in a 1941 speech, “How pages 95-115.
America Created Its Own Money in
5. Vernon Parrington, Main Currents in
1750: How Benjamin Franklin Made
American Thought, Volume 1, Book
New England Prosperous,” reprinted
3, Part 1, Chapter 3, “Alexander
in Unrobing the Ghosts of Wall
Hamilton” (1927); reprinted at http:/
Street, http://reactor core.org/
/xroads.virginia.edu/˜HYPER/
america created money.html.
Parrington/vol1/bk03_01_ch03.html.
7. Ibid.; Carmack & Still, op. cit.;
expanded quote in “Contango: 6. Lyndon LaRouche, “Alexander
Dollar Future?”, http://
Hamilton,” in Economics: The End of
thefountainhead.typepad.com (March
a Delusion (Leesburg, Virginia,
16, 2006).
2002), pages 82-83.
8. J. Goodwin, op. cit., pages 56-57.

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see also page 95, n. 28, pl. VIII.
7. ”American Vs. British System,” ibid.,
page 42. 9. Dave Birch, “Tallies & Technologies,”
Journal of Internet Banking and
8. J. Goodwin, op. cit., page 109.
Commerce, arraydev.com; “Tally
9. Stephen Zarlenga, The Lost Science of
Sticks,” http://
Money (Valatie, New York: Ameri-
yamaguchy.netfirms.com/astle_d/
can Monetary Institute, 2002), pages tally_3.html; Carmack & Still, op. cit.;
405-08. “Tally Sticks,” National Archives,
10. J. Goodwin, op. cit. nationalarchives.gov.uk (November
7, 2005).
11.Quoted in S. Zarlenga, op. cit., page
408. 10. R. Hoskins, op. cit., page 39.
12. Steven O™Brien, Hamilton (New 11. S. Zarlenga, op. cit., page 253, citing
York: Chelsea House Publishers, Peter Spufford, Money and Its Use in
1989), page 66. Medieval Europe (Cambridge
13. Anton Chaitkin, “The Lincoln University Press, 1988, 1993), pages
Revolution,” Fidelio Magazine 83-93.
(spring 1998); David Rivera, Final
12. R. Hoskins, op. cit., pages 37-45, 59-
Warning (1997), republished at
61.
silverbearcafe.com.
13. James Walsh, The Thirteenth:
Greatest of Centuries (New York:
Chapter 5
Catholic Summer School Press, 1907),
1. Bernard Lietaer, The Mystery of chapter 1.
Money (Munich, Germany: Riemann 14. Poverty and Pauperism,” Catholic
Verlag, 2000), pages 33-44.
Encyclopedia, online edition,
2. Michael Hudson, “Reconstructing the newadvent.org. (2003).
Origins of Interest-bearing Debt,” in
15. R. Hoskins, op. cit., pages 37-45, 59-
Debt and Economic Renewal in the
61.
Ancient Near East (CDL Press, 2002).
Chapter 6
3. B. Lietaer, op. cit., pages 48-49.
4. Richard Hoskins, War Cycles, Peace 1. Patrick Carmack, Bill Still, The
Cycles (Lynchburg, Virginia: Money Masters: How International
Virginia Publishing Company, 1985), Bankers Gained Control of America
page 2. (video, 1998), text at http://
users.cyberone.com.au/myers/

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