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190“92 contractualism, 11“12
phenomenology and, 191“93 contrariness, 207
reality as conceptually prior to, Copp, David, 158 n.28
190 counterfactuals, 59, 64, 122“23
argument, see principles, fundamental criticism, 161“62
normative, impossibility of argument
for Dancy, Jonathan, 142, 186“88, 200“4
assent, immediate, 197 Darwall, Stephen, 2, 92“93, 115, 116 n.9
attitudes death, 141
judgment-sensitive, 211“12 defect, 3 n.3, 135
see regarding-as-irrational mental functioning, in, 217“18; see also
Audi, Robert, 178 n.17 rationality, mental functioning
sense of
Baier, Kurt, 30“31 description, 145
basing, 118, 155“56, 179 desires, 142, 190, 214
see also explanation, action and desire, of; explanatory role of, 195“96
˜in the light of ™ ¬xed set of, 25, 60, 129, 132


226
Index

normative insigni¬cance of, 187, fallacy, philosophical, 212“13
198“200, 202“4 favoring, 200
spontaneous acquisition of, 121 n.18 Foot, Philippa, 158 n.28
see also motivation foresight, 217“18
detachability, 203 freedom, 141
disability, 141 loss of, 141
disagreement, 151 free will, 5“6, 17, 70, 153, 155“56, 216
disorder, mental, 164, 174, 186, 216 fundamental, see principles, fundamental
see also rationality, mental functioning normative
sense of funniness, 149
distance, moral relevance of, 126“27
doodling, 139 genealogy, see Pettit, Philip
Dreier, James, 50 n.20 Gert, Bernard, 53 n.24, 83 n.32, 141 n.5,
Duggan, Timothy, 83 n.32 149 n.17, 160 n.32
dutch book, 163 Gert, Esther, 93 n.11
duty, 144“45 Gibbard, Allan, 2, 7, 8, 148
imperfect, 128 n.28
Hardin, C.L., 148 n.16
end, 195“96 harm, 150
envy, 202 n.36 hatred, 202 n.36
etiology, 8, 22 n.11, 180, 186 Heath, Joseph, 178 n.17
see also basing; explanation, action and heuristic, 138
desire, of Hobbes, Thomas, 29
examples, 146 Hume, David, 41, 45“48
Air Florida rescue, 172“73
alien voices in head, 164 identity, practical, 119
catching bus, 108“9 ignorance, 72“73, 73 n.21
charity, donation to, 64“65, 88 immorality, not all irrational, 142“45
driving to Boston, 122 incommensurability, 102“5
eggs, juggling, 33 indifference, 215 n.72
holiday/job interview, 37 insanity, 11, 26, 216
ice cream eating, 197 intelligibility, 200, 202 n.36, 204“11
insulation, pointless, 202 internalism, 1, 21“22, 28, 36, 40, 43“44,
knee pain, 103“4 49“52, 56“58, 111, 133“34,
radios, switching on, 198“99 167“85
smuggling, food and supplies, 22, 90 debate, schematic representation of, 171
stuffy room, 25“26 Humean, 118 n.11, 168, 173, 178
Sydney Carton, 132 Kantian, 118 n.11, 168“70, 175
vengeful suicide, 157 ˜in the light of ™, 200“1, 204
wasps™ nest, 72“73 irrationality, 46“48, 136“66
explanation vs. being mistaken, 215
action and desire, of, 49, 72“73, 117 see also rationality
n.10, 119 n.14, 190“92, 193, 197,
200“1, 204“14, 219, 220; see also judgments, normative, 70“72, 163,
basing; reasons, for/why distinction 186“220
rational status, of, 198“99, 216“18; see normative insigni¬cance of, 198“200,
also rationalizing; reasons, justifying 202“4
role of; reasons, requiring role of standing, 189 n.8, 214
expressivism, 148“49, 188 n.6 vs. judgments of facts that have
externalism, 167, 181“82 normative signi¬cance, 190 n.11, 198
see also internalism n.26, 211 n.55, 212“13


227
Index

judgments, normative (cont.) differential relevance to justifying and
vs. normative facts, 198“99 requiring strength, 157“59, 166
what they might be, 188“93 range of rationally permissible, 114,
justi¬cation, 15“16, 16 n.20, 23“24, 117“35
177“78 rational assessment of, 176
agent-neutrality of, 98, 101 relevance to rationality, 9“10, 17, 58“59,
con¬‚ation with requirement, 19“21, 37, 118, 157“59, 161
69 n.12 relevance to reasons, 72“73, 169 n.4,
justifying/requiring distinction, 137 220; see also externalism; internalism
relevance to internalism/externalism unique counterfactual degree of,
debate, 167“68, 175“85 114“33
relevance to objective/subjective see also ˜in the light of ™; reasons, ideal
rationality relation, 159“60, 166 motive account of
see justi¬cation; requirement; reasons, motive, see desire; motivation; reasons,
justifying role of; reasons, requiring normative vs. explanatory
role of
Nagel, Thomas, 2, 55 n.27
Kant, Immanuel, 29 needs, 174
Kantianism, 13“14, 26“27, 38, 69 n.12, normativity, 19 n.2, 46, 112, 150 n.19,
153, 166 195“96 n.20, 220
Korsgaard, Christine, 41“52, 119 n.15, 169 see also principles, fundamental
n.6, 184 n.23 normative

language, 27, 27 n.15, 60, 63, 105, 143, objectivity, 139, 141, 142, 148“50
145“46, 147“50, 161, 191“92, 220 ostensive teaching, 141, 147
lists, 139 see also language
logic, 185 ought, 13 n.16, 112
love, 91 n.9, 157 implies can, 60, 118“19, 161“62
overintellectualization, 188
majority, overwhelming, 139, 141, 142, oversimpli¬cation, 170
151
malfunction, see defect; disorder, mental pain, 141
mathematics, 185 Par¬t, Derek, 158“59, 164, 176“77
maximizing, see rationality, maximizing perception, see appearance
account of permission
McDowell, John, 217 n.77 exclusionary, 106“10
McNamara, Paul, 93 n.13 rational, 53“55
Mele, Alfred, 41 n.3, 47 n.15, personality, 207“9
194 n.18 Pettit, Philip, 148
methodology, 145 pleasure, 141
Mill, John Stuart, 13, 13 n.16 loss of, 141
modus ponens, 203 possibility, psychological, 118“19
see also detachability possible worlds, 122“23
morality principles, 1“5, 41, 53
parallel with rationality, 28“37, 38“39, fundamental normative, 1“5, 27;
69 importance of, 5; impossibility of
potential reason-giving nature of, 140 argument for, 145“46
relation to rationality, 11“16, 17, reasons and, 1
82“84 priority, conceptual, 62“63, 77, 80“81,
see also immorality 105, 135, 136, 151
motivation, 41, 48“52, 80 prudence, 47“48


228
Index

psychotherapy, 121, 123“24 for/why distinction, 195“96
puzzlement, 139, 140 n.3 ˜generic™ practical, 24“25
Humean view of, 65 n.6, 69 n.12, 142,
queerness, 220 166, 187, 219; see also Hume;
Quinn, Warren, 142, 186“88, 198“200 internalism, Humean; Williams,
Bernard
range, see motivation, range of rationally ideal motive account of, 111“35
permissible justifying role of, 56, 66“67, 102
rational status mistake of taking as basic normative
prior to notion of reason, 62“63, 77, 136 term, 62
rationality moral, 24“25
adequacy conditions on account of, normative vs. explanatory, 112;
16“17 con¬‚ation of, 210“11
choice within, 4“5, 84, 129, 207 primarily justi¬catory, 61
contemporary sense of, 2 purely justi¬catory, 23, 28, 40, 58; not
formal accounts of, 162“64 weak, 38, 69, 88, 89
full-information accounts of, 80“81 requiring role of, 19“21, 56, 67
n.29, 138 n.2, 162“63 strength, 66 n.8, 73“76, 80 n.28, 96“97,
fundamental normative sense of, 136“37; 113, 152; justifying, 66, 92, 109“10;
see also principles, fundamental requiring, 67“68, 92, 109“10;
normative; rationality, objective single-value view of, 86“87, 92“101,
instrumental, 163, 187 105
maximizing account of, 12“13, 63, stronger, 61, 86“87, 92, 109“10, 111
84, 138 n.2; preference-based, 3, 23, weighing, see reasons, strength
25 see also requirement, prima facie
mental functioning sense of, 10, 137; see recommendation, 138, 144
also rationality, subjective reduction, 113 n.4
objective, 7, 16“17, 138“53; of¬cial re¬‚ection, 218“19
account of, 139“41 see also judgments, normative
satis¬cing account of, 65 regarding-as-irrational, 139“40, 141“42
subjective, 16“17, 137, 153“65, 186; regularity, brute, 205, 211“12
danger of con¬‚ation with objective, requirement
69“72, 180; de¬nition of, 160; normative, 69“70
relation to objective rationality, 6“7, prima facie, 22 n.9, 43, 52, 56“57, 88,
8“9, 18, 58, 111, 154“65 183“84
theoretical, 19, 21; as separable from response-dependence, 139, 146“50
practical rationality, 155“56; see also responsibility, moral, 5“6, 14, 17, 35, 35
belief, rationality of n.27, 70, 82“83, 153, 155“56, 216,
rationalizing, 198“200 219, 219 n.81
Rawls, John, 29 revenge, 202 n.36
Raz, Joseph, 73 n.23, 79 n.27, 102“10, Ridge, Michael, 149 n.17
142, 170, 186“88, 204“11 rigidi¬cation, 146
reasons Rosati, Connie, 115“16, 123
altruistic, 9“10, 109, 125“26, 133 n.31,
165 satis¬cing, see rationality, satis¬cing account
balance of, 37“38, 87“88, 94 of
basic, 25“26, 77“79 Scanlon, Thomas, 55 n.28, 62, 63 n.3, 142,
best, see reasons, balance of 152“53 n.22, 163, 186“88, 189,
de¬nition of, 79“80 211“16
disjunctive, see Smith, Michael terminology, 9 n.11, 186“87 n.3,
enticing, 102 n.18 215“16


229
Index

Schelling cases, 139“40 underdetermination, see rationality, choice
schizophrenia, 164 within
seeming, see appearance uniqueness assumption
self/other, 33“35, 68“69, 158 n.28, 166 see motivation, unique counterfactual
see also justi¬cation, agent-neutrality of degree of
Singer, Peter, 144 urge, 186
Skorupski, John, 63 n.2 utilitarianism, see consequentialism
Smith, Michael, 113 n.5, 115, 118 n.11,
121 n.18 vagueness, 93“94, 117, 130, 139,
spontaneity, 132“33 n.30 151
Stampe, Dennis, 72 n.17, 191 n.12 values, 119
strength, see reasons, strength
stupidity, 162 weakness of will, 203, 215, 217 n.78
supererogation, 106“7 ˜why not?™, 139
will, the, 216, 218
taste, see personality Williams, Bernard, 41, 48“52, 55 n.28, 72,
Tilley, John, 183“84 142, 174, 182“83
transitivity, 91, 94, 97, 130, 133, 163 Wingrave, Owen, 183
trustworthiness, 189“90 Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 60,
type/token distinction, 178“81 189 n.9




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