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lack of supervision, 547 management system (OSH-MS),
Montreal Protocol, 406, 447, 478 376
on substances that deplete the ozone OECD policy framework for investment,
layer, 653 597
Moody™s Corporation, 232 questions for good governance, 698“699
Morgan Stanley, 236 Ofcom, 235, 240
Mothercare plc, 407 OHSAS 18000 Series of International
Standards, 378
N Oil Pollution Act, 183
Nanotechnology Operating and financial review (OFR),
growth of, 43 for CSR and governance, 577“578
and risks, 253“254 Operational risk management (ORM),
National action plans, 653 654
National Grid Transco, 471 Organisational risk culture, 23
Negative feedback, 653 Organisation for Economic Corporation
Nepal, corporate governance in, 602 and Development (OECD)
foreign direct investment, 602 Guidelines, 354
key issues, 602“604 Organisation™s sustainable risk
recommendations, 604 management system, main rights
Nepali law, for elephants, 496 for, 356“359
Nestl©, 508 Oxfam, 447
Net present value, 653 Ozone depleting substances, 403
Nile Breweries, 284
9/11 incident, 186“187 P
Nippon Oil Corp., 481 Pakistan, corporate governance,
Nitrous oxide (N2O), 654 604“607
Noise in the Workplace Directive Pakistan Institute of Corporate
86/188, 475 Governance (PICG), 605“606
Noise levels Palo Alto Research Center Inc. (PARC),
aircraft and airport, 483 488
construction sector, 484 Pandemic Influenza Checklist for
Non-Annex B Parties, 654 Businesses recommendations, 167
Non-Annex I Parties, 654 PARC (Palo Alto Research Center Inc.),
Non-financial performance, 654 251
Non-market benefits, 654 Passive smoking, 389
Non-party, 654 Patents, 202
Norms-based screening, 654 Pavley law, 60
PCAOB, see Public Company
O Accounting Oversight Board
Occupational accidents and Pensions Act (1995), 207
consequences, 369 Amendments, 47
Index 731



People and risk management, 23 Rainfall and air pollution, 524
PepsiCo, 486, 505 Ratification, 655
Perfluorocarbons (PFCs), 654 REACH (Registration, Evaluation and
Performance, 654 Authorisation of Chemicals),
criteria, 24 504“505
indicator, 654 Reckitt Beckiser plc, 497, 510
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), Reconstruction Opportunities Zone
403 (ROZs), 606
Personal Information Protection and Recycling, defined, 485
Electronic Documents Act Redrow Homes (Midlands) Limited, 484
(PIPEDA), 91 Reforestation, 655
Pfizer Inc., 241 Reform, definition, 591
Philip Morris International, 237“238 Regional and economic conventions, for
Pioneer screening/thematic investment human rights issues, 353
propositions, 654 Regional groups, 655
Pollutants, air, 524“525 Remuneration, executive, 540
Polluter pays principle (PPP), 449“450, Renewable energy, 528“529, 655
654 Repetitive strain injury (RSI), 389
Poor human resources management, 654 Reports, Climate change, 519“520
Positive feedback, 655 The Business of Climate Change:
Positive screening, 655 Challenges and Opportunities,
Ppm or ppb, 654 519
Precautionary Principle, 447“448 Climate Change 2007: The Physical
Price/earnings (P/E) ratio, 583“584 Science Basis, 520
and CSR issues, 584“585 Climate Change and Insurance: An
Price elasticity, 655 Agenda for Action in the United
Price-to-earnings ratio (P/E), 655 States, was issued by Allianz
Private Finance Initiative (PFI), 376 Group, 520
Proctor & Gamble, 246 Review of the Economics of Climate
Producer Responsibility Obligations Change, 519
(Packaging Waste) Regulations by Sir Nicholas Stern, 519
(1997), 502 Temperature Trends in the Lower
Product safety, radioactivity, lead and Atmosphere: Steps for
CFCs, 405“406 Understanding and Reconciling
Proxy, 655 Differences, 520
Public Company Accounting Oversight Reports, on corporate failures
Board (PCAOB), 559 Cadbury Report, 544“545
Public Interest Disclosure Act 1998, Greenbury Report, 545
340“341 Hampel Review, 545
Public Interest Disclosure (Prescribed Modern Company Law for a
Persons) Order (1999), 341“342 Competitive Economy report,
545“549
R Residual reputational risk, 212, 226
Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Resource usage risks
Organisations Act, 242 energy
Radiative forcing, 655 case studies, 490
Index
732



Resource usage risks (Contd.) Rewards, of risk management process,
research and analysis, 489 97“98
risk management, 490“492 Ricin attack incidents, 429
materials Rio Conference, 1992, 437
company specific case studies, Rio Tinto, 468
486“487 Risks, 655
food sector, 486 acceptance, 14
research and analysis, 484“486 from air pollution, 524“525
risk management, 487“489 appetite, 23
natural resources and land use assessment, 24“25
biodiversity and extinctions, 495 avoidance, 13
case studies, 497“498 definitions, 10“11
contaminated land, 496“497 direct cost risk, 11
landscape management, 496 indirect/intangible risks, 11“13
research and analysis, 492“494 management, 13
resource and nature conservations, potential treatments, 13“14
495“496 sustainability risk, 13
risk management, 498 environment, 22
waste generation ˜hot spots,™ 13
case studies, 500“501 identification process, 24
legal risks, 501“502 to market value, 16
packaging and packaging waste, owner, 72
502 prioritisation process, 24
producer responsibility for waste, reduction, 13
503“505 transfer, 13
research and analysis, 498“499 Risk management, 539
risk management, 505 case studies, 527“528
waste hierarchy, 499“500 and child labour, 361“362
waste water pollution and company policy in, 359
case studies, 510“511 corporate governance and, 547“549,
research and analysis, 509“510 see also Sustainable risk
risk management, 511“512 management
water use health and safety rights issues, 363
case studies, 507“508 internal controls and, 539“541
research and analysis, 506“507 labour practices, 362“363
risk management, 508“509 and organisational best practice,
Respiratory ailments and health risks, 355“359
386“387 statement, 23
Responsibilities of Transnational steps for climate change, 525“527
Corporations, UN norms on, 356 Turnbull Report, 538“539
Retail sector, external health and safety in UK, 106“107
problems, 405 Risk management, factors for failure in
Retention, 14 people, 620
Return on investment (ROI), 655 performance, 621
Review of the Economics of Climate planning, 620
Change, 519 Risk management process
Index 733



cultural integration, 101“102 good governance, absence of
drivers for sustainable guidelines for, 570
external, 95“96 lawyers as corporate gatekeepers and
internal, 96 information intermediaries, 571
identifying company goals, 94“95 public accounting firms,
objectives for company operations to independence, 570
support a SERM environment, 95 side effects of Section 404, 568“569
risks and rewards, 97“98 Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX), positive
successful acquisitions and effects, 564
competitive advantage audit committee independence, 564
best option, 99“100 audit record, non-destruction, 567
integration options, 99 audits and reimbursement,
priorities, 100 prohibition on, 566
tactics and price, 98“99 CFO and CEO certification, 566
Royal Dutch Shell, 491 code of ethics, 567
RSM Robson Rhodes report, on corporate attorney™s responsibility
economic crimes, 145 enhancement, 566
Ryanair, 235“236, 238 disclosure requirements, 566
effect on directors, 564“565
S insider trading prohibition, 566
Safe Harbor Act, 308 internal control system, 567
Sainsbury, 468 loans prohibition, 566
Sale by auction or tender, sequence of non-audit services prohibition, 565
events, 703“705 PCAOB creation, 565
Sale by treaty, events in, 703, 705“706 Whistle blowing, 567
Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX), 47, 78“79, white collar crime penalties
118, 154, 185, 233, 308, 558“559 enhancement, 564
of 2002, 589 Scottish and Southern Energy plc, 467
conflict of interest problem and, Scottish Environmental Protection
559“560 Agency (SEPA), 452“453
disclosure requirements, 561“562 Scottish Power plc, 477
impact, 562 Screened portfolio investing, 655
off balance sheet transactions SD, see Sustainable development
disclosure, 560“561 SEC Investment Advisers Act (1940), 39,
PCAOB creation, 559 61
reforms, 561 Second Assessment Report (SAR), 655
reforms of NYSE and NASDAQ listing Second World Industry Conference on
rules, 562“564 Environmental Management, 438
Section 301 of SOX, 551 Secretariat of the UN Framework
Section 404 of SOX, 568“569 Convention on Climate Change,
Section 406 of SOX, 570 655“656
Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX), criticisms Section 301 of SOX, 551
audit committee effectiveness, Section 404 of SOX, 568“569
569“570 Section 406 of SOX, 570
effectiveness of disclosure of waiver Securities and Exchange Board of India
of ethics code, 570“571 (SEBI), 600“601
Index
734



Securities and Exchange Commission strategy
(SECP), 606 people involved, 23
Securities Class Action Clearinghouse performances, 24“25
Report, 46 planning, 22“23
Securities Exchange Commission (SEC), processes involved, 24
597 type of risk issues, 3
Sell side analyst, 656 sector wise, 8“10
Sequestration, 656 sustainable, 7“8
SERM Shared responsibility concept, 439
approach, 348 Shareholder resolution, 656
criteria, for corporate governance, Shareholder value and reputational risk
205“206 intangible value vs. tangible value,
objectives, for an organisation, 5 200
sample report methodology, 678“681 reputation factors
stakeholder template, 52 brand value, 202“204
SERM analysts™ scoring system corporate governance, 204“206
evidence for scores, 673“674 damages, 208“209
positive and negative patterns, intangible risks, 210“211
672“673 rewards, 208
scoring methodology, 671“672 shareholder groups, 206“208
SERM risk analysis model, 670“671 SERM reputation risk assessment,
analysis of corporate reputation, 211“215
brand and shareholder value, 670 shareholder review
extra-financial indicators of academic research organisations,
operational performance, research 217
on, 689“670 business partners, suppliers and
overview, 668 trade bodies, 217“219
researching companies, 669 competitors, 226
SERM system, checklist for organisation direct action groups and NGOs,
with 219“220
benefits employees and their
economic benefits, 617“618 representatives, 219“220
environmental benefits, 619 financial institutions, 220“223
social benefits, 618“619 governmental organisations,
stakeholder benefits, 619 223“225
challenges, 26“28 journalists and media organisations,
concept of sustainability, 20“21 225
defined, 3 local communities, 226
objectives, 5 shareholder risk analysis, 215“216
organisational benefits, 25“26 Shell Transport & Trading, 238, 466
organisation with, checklist for Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition, 254
people, 621 Single European Act (SEA), 440
performance, 623“624 Sinks, 656
planning, 621“622 Small and medium-sized enterprises
processes, 622“623 (SMEs), 438
research methodology, 19“20 in Pakistan, 605“606
Index 735



Social Accountability International, Stakeholder Analysis Matrix, 45
152 Standard Information Return (SIR),
Social capital, 44 120“123
Social drivers and societal trends State Bank of Pakistan (SBP), 606
ethical, 48 Stern, Sir Nicholas, 519
legal and legislative, 46“48 Stockholm Convention on persistent
political and governmental, 45“46 organic pollutants, 447
society and demographics, 44“45 Stratosphere, 656
Social/ethical risk, 662 Substitution, 656
Socially responsible investments (SRI), Substitution effects, 35
58, 221, 656 Sulphate aerosols, 656
strategies, 222 Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), 656“657
Socio-economic and business ethic risks Supplementarity, 657
in business context, 274 Supplier Management Systems (SMSs),
categories, 280“281 447
community involvement/investment Supply chain, 657
risks, 282“285 improvements, 456
health risks, 286“287 pressure, case studies, 218“219
human resources risk, 285“286 Sustainability, 657
human rights risks, 276“277 defined, 433
risk management, 279“280 indexes, 41, 59
sectorwise, 281“282 report, 657
social aspects, 272“273 risk, 13

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