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process is below:
Demands: includes issues like workload, work patterns and the work
Control: how much say the person has in the way they do their work;
Support: includes the encouragement, sponsorship and resources pro-
vided by the organisation, line management and colleagues;
Relationships: includes promoting positive working to avoid conflict and
dealing with unacceptable behaviour;
Role: whether people understand their role within the organisation and
whether the organisation ensures that they do not have conflicting roles; and
Change: how organisational change (large or small) is managed and com-
municated in the organisation.
Simple provision of the correct equipment for tasks can save lives and liabil-
ities. In France only 39% of workers exposed to crystalline silica had respi-
ratory protection, a SUMER survey in 2003 found (Risks, issue number 219,
13 August 2005); and
Variations in type and durations of tasks can improve performance and
reduce health hazards. Employers should allow for physical variation of
work tasks to avoid a worker being restricted to just computer work.

Hints and tips
Anticipating new risks
Work organisations are rapidly changing, calling for a dynamic approach
towards occupational safety and health and accident prevention. This can
only succeed if there is a strong management commitment and a high level
of employee involvement that incorporates accepting responsibility.
Information and participation
Information is an important element of management in general but espe-
cially so in the management of change. Information and communication
Part C “ Overview of the Social Aspects of Business Risks

campaigns can be very efficient in dealing with uncertainty and can help
to improve job satisfaction and avoid risks.
Participation in risk analysis and training has a positive inf luence on
attitudes, which are often the bottleneck in accident prevention. The
workforce can learn to look at its work activities in terms of safety. This
can lead to the identification of hazards and risks at a very early stage,
which in turn can help to anticipate new risks as working conditions
change rapidly. In one supermarket chain, accidents fell by 50% after a
participatory project.

Performance measurement of prevention
The cost/benefit analysis of prevention is not easy. Nevertheless, it has
been generally accepted that rapidly changing risks at work can be tackled
effectively only when everybody in the company approaches them proac-
tively. Prevention is being seen as the result of economic considerations
and as an investment in a company™s innovative capacity and future
prospects. Management systems try to integrate performance measure-
ment of prevention to achieve a higher safety level.

Life-long learning
Efforts have to be made to increase people™s ability to handle risks. Life-long
learning is becoming more important if employees are to sustain their
employability as well as their health and safety. Temporary, fixed-term and
part-time employees have less access to training and often perform tasks
requiring fewer skills, so they have less opportunity to learn on the job. They
are also less informed about the risks of their jobs. This poses a problem for
occupational safety and health (OSH) management and also for human
resources management. Life-long learning can help to anticipate changes.

Promoting safety
Companies, governments and sector organisations have been looking at
other ways of promoting health and safety. Two important developments
are the use of:

* A criterion for purchasing products and services; and
* A marketing element for promoting the sales of products or services.

Marketing strategy
When it comes to safety, marketing techniques have rarely been used. As
safety is not a product but a value, social marketing strategies can offer
ideas to motivate people to change their attitudes, to show companies how
improving safety can improve profits, and to convince politicians of the
overall benefits of an integrated safety policy.
Globalisation provides an opportunity to promote safety. A company
with a poor safety and environmental record puts its public image at risk.
Chapter 16 “ Health and safety in the workplace 399

It is very bad publicity when negative effects of globalisation are splashed
across television screens and newspapers.
The concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) can provide a
structure for promoting safety; a lot of global companies have already
shown their willingness to set high safety goals. Many have already
achieved lower accident figures.
Multinationals are in a position to export good practices established
in one part of their operations to other parts in other countries and to set
common safety standards. Similarly, they may specify safety requirements
for their procurement and contracting activities throughout the company.
Details of how one branch has solved a particular safety problem can be
passed on to others.

Company values
Companies that embrace social values and act conscientiously according
to their mission statements seem to generate a positive outlook and a high
level of employee involvement. A coherent policy “ starting with a mis-
sion statement and realised through concrete initiatives, programmes and
actions, both within and outside the company “ can mobilise employee
This exercises a positive influence on the safety culture as a whole
and even on the individual risk-avoiding behaviour of employees. The
French Bouygues Group has produced a ˜Human Resources Charter™ and a
˜European Social Charter™ (www.bouygues.com). The company has lower-
than-average accident rates.

Community approach
The idea of the ˜community approach™ is to change the attitude of the
entire community in several domains at the same time (professional envi-
ronment, private life, leisure activities, education, etc.) in order to create a
˜safety attitude™. Successful experiments using the community approach
have been carried out worldwide. These concepts can be transposed to
other cultures and are very useful for small companies.

Safety promotion and marketing can help to raise awareness among differ-
ent groups of users, who are less familiar with safety matters and so have
to be convinced of their own needs. Examples include:

* Employees and the general public who should become aware of the
importance of a ˜safety attitude™;
* Industry should abandon the illusion that bad-case scenarios will not
happen to them; and
* Politicians need to be aware of their social responsibility for developing
Part C “ Overview of the Social Aspects of Business Risks

Useful websites
* BSi “ British Standards Institute: this site provides free downloads of
OHSAS 18001 and 18002 amendments as well as a basic guide to imple-
menting an occupational safety and health management system:
* ILO “ International Labour Organisation: ILO Guidelines on health and
safety can be downloaded from this site: http://www.ilo.org/public/
Examples of best practice for combating stress are available from:
http://www.hse.gov.uk/stress/experience.htm and sample policy tem-
plates from: http://www.hse.gov.uk/stress/stresspolicy.pdf and the stress
management standard from: http://www.hse.gov.uk/stress/standards/
Useful weblinks
International organisations

* APOSHO “ Asia-Pacific Occupational Safety and Health Organisation “
* CAREX “ International Information System on Occupational Exposure
to Carcinogens http:www.ttl.fi/internet/english
* IBAS “ International Ban Asbestos Secretariat
http:// www.btinternet.com/%7eibas/index.htm
* IEA “ International Ergonomics Association http://www.iea.cc/
* ILO “ International Labour Organisation http:www.ilo.org
* ILO-CIS - ILO-International Occupational Safety and Health Information
* ILO-SAFEWORK - ILO-InFocus Programme on Safety and Health at
Work and the Environment http://www.who.int/pcs/
* IPCS “ International Programme on Chemical Safety - WHO
* ISO “ International Organisation for Standardisation
* ISSA “ International Social Security Association
* WHO “ World Health Organisation
Health and safety of stakeholders
and customers
17 Health and safety of
stakeholders and customers

The total external health and safety risks organisations face are measured
by the SERM system as 2.6% of the average market value of the top 500 US
and EU companies. This has been reduced from 4.1% by risk management
activities. This is broken down into:
* External health risks to customers and the public at 0.4% of market
value; and
* External safety risks are 1.0% of market value.
Historical liabilities are 1.2% of market value.
We review a case study of specific sectors, an overview of the tobacco
sector and an in-depth view of the food sector™s complex health and safety
issues surrounding their products. The food sector now has to contend
with recent issues of concern like:
Food security;
Food authenticity;
Common and emerging pathogens;
Microbial contamination of vegetable salads;
Salmonella contamination in chocolates;
Toxicity of food additives “ Sudan red dye;
Bad practice in the dairy industry;
Carcinogenic acrylamide in food;
Contamination from packaging;
Antibiotics in honey;
Genetically modified crops; and
Nanotechnology contamination.

External health risks to customers and the public
The results of SERM research indicate that:
External health risks to customers and the public is 0.4% of market value of
the 500 largest EU and US companies; and
Chapter 17 “ Health and safety of stakeholders and customers 403

This risk exposure has been reduced from 0.6% of market value by good risk
management techniques (the risk reduction/management factor).
This chapter concerns members of the public suffering adverse illness as a
result of exposure to the company™s products. In particular, the extent to which
use consumption, storage, and/or disposal/treatment of the company™s products
and services entails the generation, depletion, or use of:
Ozone depleting substances (listed in Annex A, B, C and E of the Montreal
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) (listed in Annex A and B of the
Stockholm POPs Convention);
Substances subject to the Rotterdam Convention on Prior Informed Consent
Hazardous chemicals/materials according to the Basel Convention (Annex I,
II, III, and VIII);
Endangered species listed in CITES (Convention on the International Trade
in Endangered Species in Wild Fauna and Flora);
Greenhouse emissions covered by the Kyoto Protocol;
Radioactive substances;
Limited natural resources; and
Significant hazards or nuisances such as regulated pollutants, dust, and
noise, etc.
Data on product risk is often not provided by companies. However, such data is
specified by Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) Number SO8.
The following graph shows the health and safety risk (net) from external
health risks to customers and public by sector.

Health External (public)

Net (Residual) Risk



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